Monday, September 30, 2019
Now, Imagine a world without any laws. No rules, no commands and Just your rules to be followed. It's also crazy Isn't To have a world without any laws means not only to be free but also to be In a world with chaos. For example, the traffic rules, Without any traffic rules, how can we determine whether we are on the go signal or not? Can you Imagine It? A car being smashed by another?What result would that supposed to be? Focuses! What else? It's accidents. Yes I can say that every person has his/her rights to wish for his/her freedom however, this freedom should be limited. In this case, I can also say that even though they can do anything what he/she wishes for, he/she can never wish what a government wishes to have in its institution, to have peace and order. Yet, people wish for their own interest and it doesn't help each other. Imagine the people peeing in different places, different streets? Or how about people who throws garbage anywhere? Do you think it's healthy?A big NO for me because these things exults into floods, typhoons and other natural calamities being held not constant or even worse deceases.. This makes the lives of others to be in danger. What about buildings making their goods at higher price or shall we say doing the act of overpricing? Is it helpful to us? I say, no. How can people with little income buy food with too expensive goods? How can they live their lives without buying it? The tendency would be robbery. They will be forced to rob food shops because they can't afford a high price of goods because they are poor.They will be forced and in such ease would make it a hobby because of that high prices of goods. Imagine the world without any law enforcers; do you think we can live peacefully? To those who have lost their innocent member of the family, do you think without the law enforcers, can they claim their right for injustice? No they can't. What about drugs, a world full of dangerous drugs, do you think it molds people to what ou r present professionals are doing right know? Again, I think not. These things we can imagine if we create a world without laws.A world full of accidents, harassment and such cases that a man can o without making himself or herself put Into Jail. Are you willing to have a world Like that? I guess not. Therefore, Imagine a world with laws. Laws that protects human life, a law that makes a person free with Its Limits, Isn't It wonderful? And Peaceful? We need laws to guide us, we need them because we do. Live a world with laws to be guided, secured and to be protected. A world without laws By Paraphrases Imagine a world without any laws. No rules, no commands and in fact we only follow rules of our own. Try to think of it. Fun! Isn't it?Now, imagine a world without any laws. No rules, no commands and Just your rules to be followed. It's also crazy isn't To have a world without any laws means not only to be free but also to be in a determine whether we are on the go signal or not? Can you imagine it? A car being they claim their right for injustice? No they can't. What about drugs, a world full of do without making himself or herself put into Jail. Are you willing to have a world like that? I guess not. Therefore, imagine a world with laws. Laws that protects human life, a law that makes a person free with its limits, isn't it wonderful? And Peaceful?
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Jan Bernadette BalingitÃ¢â¬â¢s Autobiography Hi! My name is Jan Bernadette Tolentino Balingit,I was born on December 08 1999. My favorite color is violet and my favorite cartoon character is Hello Kitty. I am the only one girl between my two brothers. And I live in Sisiman, Mariveles, Bataan. And IÃ¢â¬â¢m taking schooling at Bepz Multinational School. And I want to play all day but not always because I want to first my study. IÃ¢â¬â¢m 13 yrs. old now. When I grow up I want to be an Optometrist like my mother, because I want to be like her.To be an Optometrist, I will finish first my study because when I will not finish my study I will not be an Optometrist. IÃ¢â¬â¢m nearer and nearer to that stage because IÃ¢â¬â¢m Grade 6 now. And I will introduce to you my FAMILY members: Maria Victoria T. Balingit-Mother, Benny Balingit Ã¢â¬â Father, John Benedict T. Balingit Ã¢â¬â Older brother, John Vincent T. Balingit Ã¢â¬â Younger brother. My very memorable experience is when we go to Enchanted Kingdom with my family especially me.And after we eat there we make Ã¢â¬Å"GalaÃ¢â¬ then we decided to take a ride in the rides named Ã¢â¬Å"Space ShuttleÃ¢â¬ we fall in line there in about 25 minutes. Then when itÃ¢â¬â¢s our turn we sits at the middle seats. And when the rides start moving we all get nervous and when we go down from the rides we all get dizzy. And my dad searching for a nurse to get our blood pressure we need to take a rest first. And when the nurse is there to get our blood pressure my motherÃ¢â¬â¢s blood pressure is the highest blood pressure at all. Project In English Submitted To: Fatima Acuna Submitted By: Jan Bernadette T. Balingit
Saturday, September 28, 2019
1. Ethically, is brain death not as final as cardiac death? Why or why not? Brain death is final. There is no coming back from it, ever. Neurons die, and the brain ceases to function. Permanently. With cardiac death, we can sometimes use medication or electricity to resume heart function. A systole (no electrical activity in the heart) can sometimes be reversed if the underlying cause of the problem can be treated (such as severe electrolyte abnormalities, or severe hypothermia). 2. How does the Prudent Person Rule apply in this case? The prudent rule or Ã¢â¬Å"reasonable manÃ¢â¬ law dictates that a person act in a manner that is consistent with the skills, logic, resources, and knowledge that an average lay-person may have. In medicine, it would apply to a patient in that they are required to take all steps that are reasonable and prudent to affect a positive outcome in their treatment. In other words, you would be expected to follow doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s orders, do all routine follow up and home therapy, use reasonable judgments and so on. So the answer here is, yes Ã¢â¬â this does apply to the case because this young girl came into the hospital for a simple surgery removing her tonsils, adenoids, and extra sinus tissues. And was shortly determined brain dead after beginning to bleed profusely, and went through cardiac arrest, meaning the serious dysfunction of an organ. 3. In your opinion, could this tragedy have been prevented? If so, how? In this case I really donÃ¢â¬â¢t know the specifics of this particular case, because there are so many missing pieces between the pre-op and post-op that IÃ¢â¬â¢m unsure of how this actually happened to determine if this tragedy could have been prevented. In some cases the parents have to be completely informed as to the ramifications of a situation before making a final decision.
Friday, September 27, 2019
COMMERCIAL LAW - Essay Example The ways that are used to launder money include using the financial systems or services that cover up the tracks or sources from where the money is being transferred. Whereas, some countries may only consider money laundering when being used in a crime in that administration is being cheated on. The amount of money laundered every year is in billions, posing a policy threat and concerns for the governments. Many governments release the amount of money laundered each year either all around the world or only within their economy. The IMF (International Monetary Fund) in 1996 stated that about 2.3 percent of the global economy consisted laundered money. Therefore, FATF (Financial Action Task Force) is an organization set up to fight money laundering. FATF does not publish the exact figures of money laundered each year because it is impossible to estimate the right amount. Governments and other International bodies have made measurements in order to prevent and combat money laundering2. Financial institutions like IMF and FATF have made efforts to detect these sources and the transactions involving laundered money. International large scale criminal organizations and activities such as drug wars are the main benefactors of money laundering. Issues related to money laundering have existed as long as these international criminal organizations and activities have existed. It has been understood recently that anti-money laundering legislations have been the reason for the drop in both these acts of crime because these acts usually require transmission of funds that have untraceable sources. METHODS The process of money laundering consists of basic three steps are3: 1. Placement 2. Layering 3. Integration PLACEMENT: This is the process of introducing the cash within the financial system through some illicit means. LAYERING: This step consists of covering the tracks or camouflaging the illegal source. INTEGRATION: It is the acquiring the money generated from illegal sour ces from the transactions carried out by illegal funds. To chase away any kind of further suspicions, money launderers convert form of their dirty money into various types such as: 1. Smurfing is a method of breaking the money into smaller deposits of money or purchasing bearer instruments such as money orders and the depositing them into further smaller amounts. 2. Cash smuggling in bulk and then depositing it into offshore banks with greater chances of hiding money. 3. Depositing cash into the accounts of business that involves greater amounts of cash such as strip clubs, casinos, tanning spas etc. 4. Trading money by using over-value invoices to cover the movement of money. 5. Buying controlling interest in a bank that has less rigorous money- laundering legislations and then moving the money without having the bank scrutinize it. 6. Buying gambling chips from the casinos then cashing it after playing for a while in the form of a check or get a receipt proving it as a gambling wi n or spending the money in gambling with the higher odds then showing the wins while hiding the losses. 7. Through paying black salaries to the unregistered employees of a company and black cash is used to pay them. 8. Fictional loans 9. Hiding the money at home or other places 10. Tax evasion and also that legalize unreported assets in tax havens. ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING IN UK Anti-money launderi
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Black Elk Speaks by John Gneisenau Niehardt - Essay Example The power of the play is not simply that it's superbly written drama but that it's all true (Dramatic Publishing Online Catalog)". Theatrical performance of the book has many significant features which determine the character of the play, and these features play rather important role for spectators' perception of the performance. I will discuss the theme and the main concept of the play by Niehardt's book Black Elk, the costumes of main characters and the lighting of the stage in different parts of the play, as well as its some significant moments. I will also access possible participation of some Hollywood actors in this play. 2. The theme of the play is the mix of some important themes of the book. So, it can be a mix of autobiographical theme and elegy, as it tells about tragic destiny of one of the most famous Indian tribes, and American Indians in general. The play should show the most important moments of the novel and to uncover the nature of the narration. The book consists of twenty-five chapters, and it is impossible to show the whole plot of the novel. The main concept of the play is to show the tragedy of Native Americans and to make spectators think of their historical legacy. Naturalism in some moments and symbolism of the whole play will influence spectators' perception of the performance. ... cter of the play is autobiographic narration of the main character, Black Elk, about his life, mystical visions which took place in his mind and performance reflection of these visions on the stage. The play will show a transition of the Indian tribe to reservation culture and reflect the influence of historical events on personal world perception. This transition will be displayed through the voice and views of Black Elk, as the main character of the play, as Glen Vanderbilt, professor of theater noted, "That voice reminds us of tradition and culture and asks for peace, justice and hope. Our stage production seeks to join that voice and remind our audience not only what was lost, but also what may still be" (At Ohio Wesleyan University Online). In addition to that, the play will show great life experience of Black Elk until the end of independence of American Indians, personal tragedy and tragedy of the whole world of Native Americans faced European invasion. 3. Costumes take one of the first places in the performance. They play one of the most important roles in historical period features reflection. A costume is the integral part of any play, especially that of historical character. So, a costumer must use all the features of a costume to show colours of that historical epoch. The director of the play will show all the variety of costumes features concerning particular play and time the action takes place, especially if it can help to underline the plot and the color of the time. I think that the characters will dress costumes which would resemble Indians' attire of that time, including important difference signs of some tribe members. So, Black Elk's costume will underline his status of a holy man, Whirlwind Chaser's costume will tell spectators that he is a
Internal and external (domestic and foreign policies) changes in the US since 1980 - Essay Example When George bush was appointed president, he appointed an experienced team that runs all matters of foreign policy (Beisner 90). He rejected many of ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s policies and adopted others that were from a unilateralist approach. In his term, several international treaties were not implemented, and new realism was adopted as the new policy. The terrorist attacks of September 2001 on the United States led to major changes in the foreign polices of the country, and adopted an overwhelming priority, which was war on terrorism (Beisner 91). The domestic policies that were in place during the cold war focused on supporting businesses and expansion of opportunities of people who fall in the middle class. As a country, the United States has a history of promoting and disregarding human rights abroad; however, it has a mixed record at home (Beisner 49). The federal branch of the government continues to support the use of abusive counterterrorism policies. The criminal justice system employs policies that are marred with racial disparities and harsh sentences (Beisner 57). The US has undergone several changes in the foreign and the domestic policies. These policies are implemented with the aim of establishing better lives and security for American citizens. This paper has been a discussion of the changes that have taken place in the domestic in addition, the foreign policies of the country since
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Critically analyze how successful the British government's use of Spending Reviews has been as a way of making government more - Essay Example This essay seeks to critically analyze the success of British government in using spending review in the execution of government strategies. The labor government has been using spending reviews from 1998 to the year 2007 to set out spending plans. The departmental expenditure limits (DELs) covers the predictable spending of the government. This includes spending on hospitals and schools. Annually managed expenditure (AME) covers the public elements that are driven by demand. Examples include debt interests and social security spending. The spending review cover three years but they occur annually. The last year of a spending review is subject to reassessment in preparation to the next spending review period. The labor government increased spending which necessitated tight spending plans between the April 2008 and March 2011. According to the treasury, the public spending was expected to fall. The fiscal projections indicated that tax receipts were set to be increase over the active t hree year period. This was the only way to meet the borrowing forecasts of government (Corsetti & Muller 2009). In the previous four years, the labor government had increased public spending. The British government predicted that total managed expenditure (TME) would be ?587 billion in the period between 2007 and 2008. This was considered the broadest measure of the government expenditure. The amount was equated to roughly 43 percent of the British national income (Floud & Johnson 2004). The previous year, just before the labor government came to power, the government has spent roughly 41 percent of the national income. This was between 1996 and 1997. This represented roughly a 2 percent increase of the national income in the gross public spending (Hills & Stewart 2009). This is equivalent to ? 28 billion in the 2007 terms. For the first two years in office, the labor government maintained the conservative spending plan. This was in accordance to their manifesto promise from 1997 to 1999. During that period, there was s robust economic performance and the public spending was seen to decline with regard to national income. The labor government based its spending plans on the comprehensive spending review prepared for the year 1998. This was buoyed by the spending reviews from 2000 to 2004. This was later affected by the economy-wide inflation which was also referred to as real terms. There was significant departmental under spending. As a result the economic performance was resilient between 1999 and 2000. The 2007 march budget increased the education spending to 77 billion pounds (Hills & Stewart 2009). This was equated to 2 percent annual average in real terms. The increment was seen to be slower than the education spending. In the overall, it was still a cut. However, this increment was expected to grow from 1999 to 2008. Over the same period of time, the average increment was 5.5 percent annually in real terms (Floud & Johnson 2004). The plans of education spending led to a spending fall in the national income (Giudice & Kuenzel 2012). The labor government manifesto had committed to increase education spending in the 2005 election. During the period the labor government remained in power, the spending increment in education sector was supposed to be maintained. However, this had an impact in the ability of the British government to deliver on other aspects of education in the United Kingdom (Corsetti & Muller 2009). The 2006
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Futuristic Design in Public Safety and Housing for an Ideal Imaginary City - Essay Example People can now live above the earth, and do not need to rely on it for any further for living, beside as a base for recourses. This also leads to a new mode of transportation, the closest thing we have seen so far would be shuttles and crafts seen in Star Wars movies. Using these floating vehicles, we are able to nimbly and swiftly commute from advanced city to advanced city. The new standard of living has also opened up new advancements in the living and safety of all people. All houses are now simple domes in the sky, and can only be entered by strict security clearance. A person must enter a chamber, where the person's retina is scanned, as well as their handprints analyzed. This offers maximum household security and has brought robbery rates down to practically zero. Many other household advancements have helped make life easier and more comfortable for many people. New climate control meters are installed in every home, which allows for complete control of the temperature, and even the weather inside the house dome. If a person wants it to rain for example, they must simply press a button on the weather control mechanism, which will make it rain. The same can be done for all weather and temperatures. This advancement lead to people not having to live in a certain location to benefit from the climate they wanted. New advancements in how policing systems work have led to a huge increase in pub
Monday, September 23, 2019
Music and Baroque Period - Essay Example The advancement of music and its various genres found competent handling from the likes of great musical composers such as Johann Sebastian Bach, George Friederic Handel, Antonio Vivaldi and Jean-Baptiste Lully. In their works, can be found the different kinds of music. In the work of Bach and Handel, the Oratorio flourished, and the Opera became popular due to Handel's compositions. The music of the Church also changed, with greater emphasis laid on the cantata, as well as toccatas, and fugue. This was the period, when court life was at its peak and the master of court-style composing was attributed to Jean-Baptiste Lully, while the Concerto grosso, found great meaning in the hands of Antonio Vivaldi its master. Baroque music can be divided into three periods - early, middle and late characterized by different styles. The early period was entrenched in religion while the middle period was characterized by music played in the court. This was the age of Ã¢â¬ËabsolutismÃ¢â¬â¢ when the power of the Church and the state created the need for organized public music and Chamber music. Music began to be treated as an art to be taught under the auspices of a formal structure. Jean-Baptiste LullyÃ¢â¬â¢s works during that period is marked by acquiescence to the demands made by the court and thus we have in collaborating with MoliÃ ¨re in comÃ ©die-ballets, i.e. plays with dancing. He composed operas for the King, creating the tragÃ ©die lyrique based on libretti where the main focus was on the conflict.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Accounting Study Essay CA1-18 a) The ethical issue is the corporate reporting department is not recording the late entries and reporting incorrect numbers on purpose. b) Troy Normand is acting immorally because as a manager he is not making sure that the numbers are being recorded correctly. c) I would have done what a manager supposed to do and make sure the numbers and late entries are being recorded correctly. d) The major stakeholders are the employees. C-A2-4 A 1) Relevance- accounting information must be capable of making a difference in a decision. Predictive value, confirmatory value, and materiality help make up relevance. 2) Faithful representation- that the numbers and descriptions match what really existed or already happened. Completeness, neutrality, free from error help make up faithful representation. 3) Understandability- decision makers vary widely in the types of decisions they make, how they make decisions, the information they already possess or can obtain from other sources, and their ability to process the information. The quality of information that lets reasonably informed users see its significance. 4) Comparability- Information that is measured and reported in a similar manner for different companies is considered comparable. Enables users to identify the real similarities and differences in economic events between companies. 5) Consistency- is presented when a company applies the same accounting treatment to similar events, from period to period. Through such application, the company shows consistent use o f accounting standards. See more:Ã The 3 Types of Satire Essay B 1) If I want to buy shares in Pepsi Co I will sacrifice faithful representation for a gain from relevance. I can check the predictive value,Ã confirmatory value, and materiality of the company for the future value. 2) If I am choosing between two companies General Motors and Toyota I sacrifice relevance and chose consistency to see which company shows consistent use of accounting standards from period to period, to help me make my decision. 3) I am looking to invest in either Toyota or General Motors I sacrifice consistency and gain from using comparability. I can see the differences in the similar companies in a similar manner. 4) If I own shares in General Electric and I see that General Electric issues a three month report that shows interim earnings have declined significantly. I will sacrifice relevance and gain from understandability because of the information and sell my shares. C c) The Decision Usefulness criterion should be used to evaluate trade-offs between information characteristics. CA2-5 a) Realized or realizable, earned. A company realizes revenue when it exchanges products, merchandise, or other assets for cash or claims to cash. Revenue is realizable when the assets received or held are readily convertible into cash or claims to cash. A company delays recognition of revenues until earned. Revenues are considered earned when the company substantially accomplishes what it must do to entitle to the benefits represented by the revenues. B 1) Revenue is realized because it exchanges products for a claim to cash. 2) Revenue is realizable because of the claims to cash and the publication of the magazine every month. 3) Revenue is earned because the company accomplished what it must do to be entitled to the benefits.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Overview Of The Sampath Bank Management Essay Objective of this chapter is to present a general idea about the research. Hence, Chapter one is divided into eight areas such as background of the study, Objectives of the research, research problem, conceptual framework, research hypotheses, research questions, significance of the research and organization of the study. 1.1 Overview of the Sampath bank and Background of the study The dynamic nature of the new marketplace today has created a competitive incentive among many companies to consolidate and reconcile their knowledge assets as a means of creating value that is sustainable over time. Knowledge transferring is believed to be able to improve performance and productivity of the organization and knowledge transferring has been illustrated as a significant discipline in leading to positive performance in the organization (Kasim, 2008). To achieve competitive sustainability, many companies are launching extensive knowledge transferring efforts. More recently, knowledge transfer has emerged as powerful determinants of value creation in organizations. Organizations specific knowledge becomes as a necessary factor of competitive advantage (Gold, Malhotra, and Segars, 2001). The Sampath Bank has commenced its operations as a License commercial bank in 1987 with 47 employees. At present 3rd largest PCB in the contry Its vision statement, The Growing Force in Sri Lankan Financial services and values mentioned in below enhancing professional standards of internal and external customers (Sampath bank, 2012). Create a learning culture that promotes individual and organizational development as well as promoting innovation and value for customers. Treat all internal and external customers the way we would like to be treated. Encourage and promote teamwork in all aspects of behavior. Open to feedback and demonstrate an eagerness for personal development. Monitor and demonstrate an impressive commitment to results. Uncompromising ethical and professional standards of behavior The bank believes that its greatest treasure in what is truly a service industry is its investment in human capital, the high quality of management staff, motivation, dedication, and team spirit. The bank does not employ clerks and peons and ubiquitous features in most other institutions. Its staff is composed of executives assisted by secretaries, all of whom have been handpicked and adequately remunerated at levels well above prevailing market rates. Team of Sampath Bank is young and energetic, adaptable to change and are blessed with a gungkok bo attitude which in all circumstances allows us to pursue the vision and mission of the bank stridently. They are committed to constant improvement, new ideas and remain unafraid of challenges. They seek new opportunities within the knowledge based culture we permeate across the bank and this has resulted in winning accolades from all spheres of competencies. Moreover, among the corporate objectives of the bank was employ, develop and retai n a self-motivated group of employees who themselves enforce high standards of performance (Sampath bank, 2012). According to General Manager of Sampath bank the relative youth, together with the enthusiasm and the pioneering spirit of all members of the staff had laid the foundation for the development of an innovative culture which was so essential in a field as competitive as banking. Intensive training, recreation and welfare facilities transform and guided the development and skills attitudes of the team necessary to deliver superior customer satisfaction (Sampath bank, 2012). The numbers of employees and branches have been increased to 3230 and 206 respectively in 2011. It has recruited new employees parallel to the vision of accelerating the branch network with the aim of gaining competitive advantage. The Sampath Bank had to fill the new vacancies from strategic level to function level in the newly opened 35 branches. The rapid expansion did not give a room to in-house built the skilled team members to allocate for newly opened branches. Most of team members were promoted to higher potential grades than their real potential grades. Number of employees who have been worked in different department in Sampath bank utilized the opportunity to work in branches. Transferred team members were required enhancing professional standards of internal and external customers with moving from their functions to branch banking.nb Several issues can be explored with reference to knowledge transferring in Sampath Bank. This research intends to identify whether the transferred employees have been shared or gain their knowledge within the subordinate employees. The main objectives of this study to explore links between employee transfer and knowledge transfer. This study is monitoring these issues and identified ways in which they may be overcome by introducing changes to the effective knowledge transferring. Objectives of the research The purpose of this research is to examine the links between employee transfer and knowledge transfer. The following objectives will be fulfilled above aim of this study. To explore management concepts to review links between employee transfer and knowledge transfer To identify individual and organizational factors for affecting effectiveness of knowledge transfer Research problem Top corporate entities in the world are beginning to realize the significance and importance of transferring knowledge and are beginning to appreciate knowledge as the most important and valued assets that leads to organizational performance. The Sampath Bank will compete for business only on the basis of quality, price and superior service to its customers. Considering values in Sampath bank, The Bank develops a highly motivated and competent team of individuals who independently ensure that the highest standards are maintained throughout the Bank. The bank Create a learning culture that promotes individual and organizational development as well as promoting innovation and value for customers are highly focused. Promoting open to feedback and monitor commitment to results are aimed to enhance its ethical and professional standards of behavior. The Sampath bank makes every effort to train and develop team members to acquire the professional skills and knowledge they would need to use in the Bank and the bank do hope that both team members professional and personal goals will be realized in a satisfying and rewarding career at the Sampath bank. The bank encourages team members to find new and better ways of doing their job or improving their Banks systems and processes. Innovation creates value not only for customers but for team members. It would add to the quality of work life and ensure that quality work of team members. The Sampath bank considers training and development as one of the most valuable investment in realizing their enduring goals and aspirations. Work towards developing their own talents and creating a culture where team members strive to acquire and share new knowledge critical to achieve mission of the bank. The Sampath bank deploys systematic and modern learning methods to enhance knowledge and productivity. As a matter of policy, the bank provides minimum of sixty hours of training per year for every team member. The type of training will be determined by an analysis of what skills and knowledge are required by each. The analysis will consider not only what is necessary in their current job but also what they would require in successive positions in the future. Team members are generally expected to serve in a particular workstation for a minimum period of four years. However, request for a transfer from team members assigned to Branches in remote areas may be considered after completion of three years. In the event of transfer of a team member, subsequent to his/her promotion, the minimum period of three years will not apply. Except for team members identified for specialization. The Bank encourages team members to acquire the skills and knowledge they need to do their job and the future positions they will hold and to disseminate those skills and knowledge within the Bank, So that, the Banks organizational capabilities and effectiveness are always improved. Career at the bank will depend on how well team members perform in the jobs they hold and the attitudes they exhibit. The work performance will be the sole criteria for any promotion. Considering rapid expansion in Sampath bank, it has emerged more vacancies in Branch banking. In presenting issue in promoting team members who has fewer competencies in branch banking to team members in branches. Required knowledge transferring through the transferred employees is questionable. Relationship between knowledge transferring and employee transferring in the Sampath bank is vital for academic performances. Considering these events and factors less publication in banking industry have addressed the effectiveness of knowledge transferring. As such, this study effort to identify the effectiveness of knowledge transferring from transferred employees at the Sampath bank. Conceptual framework A conceptual framework represents the relationships and the type of relationships among the concepts. The conceptual framework portrayed in figure.1 explains the relevant concepts in this study, and the form of relationship between the perceptions. Figure 1.1 Conceptual framework of the study Characteristics of the Transferred Employees Employee Transfers Effectiveness of Knowledge Transferring Source: Researchers orginal constraction. Moreover, figure 1 describes an analytical model in a graphical model based on some theoretical foundations. Accordingly, the conceptual framework is developed based on theories. The model assumes transferred employees as independent and knowledge transferring as dependent. Research hypotheses Bhatti, Zaheer and Rehman (2010) studied the effect of knowledge management practices on organizational performance. Specially, the study explored the effectiveness of knowledge transferring depend on learning capability, leadership skills and experience of employees. H1: Effectiveness of knowledge transfer is influenced by characteristics of the transferred team members at the Sampath bank. Research questions How individual and organizational factors influence for the effectiveness of knowledge transfer? What are the individual characteristics affect to knowledge transfer? How transfer knowledge via transferred employees? Significance of the research The main significance of this study is to help management of The Sampath Bank identify the effectiveness of knowledge transferring from transferred employees. Effectiveness of knowledge transferring relates to Banks current business performance named as customer orientation, competent people, long term profitability and growth, image building, effectiveness leadership among major customer segments. This knowledge will enable management implement the appropriate strategies that help improve the effectiveness of knowledge transfer. On the other hand, knowledge transferring plays significance role in building up sustainable competitive advantage in Banking industry. Limitation of the study The aim of this section is to define the boundaries of the study or to enumerate how the researcher has narrowed down its focus. The survey was conducted over a period of three months. Organization of the Report The main body of this report comprises seven sections. Its structural organization is presented in Figure 1.2 given below. Chapter 03 Research methodology and framework Chapter 04 Thematic organization, presentation and Analysis of data Chapter 05 Statistics outcome. Chapter 06 Concluding remarks Chapter 01 Introduction Chapter 02 Literature review Source: Researchers orginal constraction. The introduction that comprises a glimpse of the study, focusing on the context, the objectives of the study, an overview of the Sampath bank in Sri Lanka, the research issue and empirical setting of the research. it also provides an account of limitations that the researcher has set for defining the boundaries of the study. Chapter two contains a review of past research on the topics covered in this study. In this section, some important findings of past studies are outlined, while attention is paid to their methodological concerns. A special feature of thhhis literature review is the emphasis placed on bringing to the fore findings of knowledge transferring and characteristics of employees. The research methodology and framework of the study are presented in chapter three. Key areas addressed therein include the case study research strategy employed, units of analysis, the method of sampling, methods of data collection, the quality of research strategy and the research framework. The foundation for this study as developed in the preceding two sections leads to the development of a conceptual framework as a piece of original work of the researcher, which has strengthened the researchers endeavor to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on the subject. Chapter four and five which are based on Knowledge transferring and transferred employees. Chapter Four explains the methodology, adopted in this study in order to empirically test the research hypotheses. Moreover, the chapter presents findings, statistics outcomes and facts. Chapter Five comprises of a review of data collection, followed by a detailed review of the factor analysis.in addition, objectives of the study, evaluate hypotheses and limitations are presented. And, it presents the similarities and differences between knowledge transfers and employee transfers with special reference to the organization of knowledge transferring function and job transfer. Chapter six presents findings and concluding remarks of the study. Latter part of this section documents presents limitations of the study, inviting the attention of academics, researchers, scholars and practitioners to understand how they could plan future research taking cognizance of these limitations. Potential research would essentially contribute to broadening the horizons of the body of knowledge and wisdom on knowledge transferring as an academic and professional discipline. Literature Review 2.0 Introduction to the chapter The purpose of this chapter is to present the literature review related to the concepts incorporated in the study. This chapter consists of sections such as definition of knowledge, definition of knowledge management, types of knowledge, importance of knowledge, knowledge and organizational performance, knowledge transferring, knowledge transferring and competitive advantage, factors affecting for knowledge transferring, effectiveness of knowledge transferring and knowledge transferring in financial institutions and Individual characteristics and knowledge transferring. Meanwhile 2.1 Knowledge and Knowledge transferring Knowledge is fluid mixes of framed experience, values, contextual information and expert insight that provides a framework for evaluating and incur pirating new experiences and information or Knowledge is about people, relationship. Communities and new ways of working Tan (2010) reviewed that knowledge are the two types of knowledge such as explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge. Information systems which achieved by organization named as explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge refers to informal knowledge which gain through work experiences. Most scholars divide knowledge into two types such as explicit knowledge or information, and tacit knowledge or know-how (Hussain. Lucas. and Ali., 2004). The key to knowledge is capturing intellectual assets for the tangible benefits for the organization. As such, imperatives of knowledge is to transform knowledge to add value to the processes and operations of the business, leverage knowledge strategic to business to accelerate growth and innovation and use knowledge to provide a competitive advantage for the business. (Hussain. Lucas. and Ali., 2004). Knowledge management is an organizational discipline bridging information demand and supply in support of learning processes within organizations (Curado.n.d.). Knowledge management enables the communication of knowledge from one person to another so that it can be used by the other person. (Hussain. Lucas. and Ali. , 2004). Knowledge transfer (KT), knowledge retention (KR), and knowledge utilization (KU) are identified as components of knowledge management systems.( Gayton, 2009). Knowledge transfer revealed by Makino (1990) typically has been used to describe the movement of knowledge between different units, divisions, or organizations rather than individuals. This is described Tan,(2010) and Disterer (2001) by stating Knowledge transferring can be defined as a social interaction culture involving the exchange of employee knowledge, experiences and knowledge through the whole department or organizations. However, Gayton (2009) concluded knowledge transferring is not only between departments. The process of knowledge can be transferred through one channel to another channel such as group, department and branch. Therefore, Knowledge transfer means knowledge sharing within an organization between individual and groups (Trautman,2011). 2.2 Significance of Knowledge transferring Most knowledge organizations, uses multiple knowledge management tools to transfer knowledge. With the result of knowledge transfer any organization that competes with other organizations in the marketplace on quality, price, or customer loyalty. (Schlomer, Anderson and Shaw,1997). Due to the, emergence of personal networks and applications, knowledge transferring and capturing are becoming more on-demand. And, Organizations must continuously update their knowledge resource to stay in the competition (Bhatti, Zaheer and Rehman, 2010). Knowledge transferring is necessary for companies because what worked yesterday may or may not work tomorrow because, market needs are changing rapidly. Knowledge is a vital factor for financial institutions. Use the knowledge management system enhances continuous improvement and innovation to gain competitive advantage. Demands from customers and Human resources require transfer knowledge within the organization (Rasoulinezhad,n.d.). 2.3 Factors that Influence Knowledge Sharing There is a scarcity of research specifically in the area of knowledge sharing between individuals in organizations, and empirical evidence has just begun to uncover some of the complex dynamics that exist in processes related to knowledge sharing. Based on a review of theory and research related to knowledge sharing, the following have been identified as the major factors that influence knowledge sharing between individuals in organizations: the nature of knowledge, motivation to share, opportunities to share, and the culture of the work environment. 2.3.1 Nature of Knowledge Knowledge by its very nature exists in both tacit and explicit forms. However, with the increasing recognition of the importance of knowledge in organizations, different types of knowledge have also begun to be valued differently within organizations. These two characteristics of the nature of knowledge, tackiness and explicitness of knowledge, and the value attributed to knowledge have a significant influence on the way knowledge is shared within organizations. 2.3.2 Tacit and explicit knowledge. The dominant classification of knowledge in organizations divides it into two types, tacit and explicit. The critical differences between these two types are found in three major areas codifiability and mechanisms for transfer, methods for acquisition and accumulation, and the potential to be collected and distributed (Lam, 2000). The concept of tacit knowledge was first presented by Polanyi (1966), who argued that a large part of human knowledge cannot be articulated and made explicit easily. Tacit knowledge can be thought of as the know-how that is acquired through personal experience (Nonaka, 1994). It is therefore not easily codifiable and cannot be communicated or used without the individual who is the knower. Tacit knowledge also tends to be sticky in nature. Lam (2000) defined stickiness as the incremental expenditure involved in moving knowledge in a form that is useable and easily understood by the information seeker. According to Lam, stickiness for the knowledge supplier c omes from the tackiness of the knowledge that has to be shared, whereas absorptive capacity creates stickiness for the knowledge user. Therefore, tackiness of knowledge is a natural impediment to the successful sharing of knowledge between individuals in organizations. Explicit knowledge, on the other hand, can be easily codified, stored at a single location, and transferred across time and space independent of individuals (Lam, 2000). It is easier to disseminate and communicate (Schulz, 2001). Explicit knowledge therefore has a natural advantage over tacit knowledge in terms of its ability to be shared relatively easily among individuals. However, just because explicit knowledge is easily transferred across individuals and settings, it should not be assumed that it is easily shared in organizations. Weiss (1999) argued that the ability to articulate knowledge should not be equated with its availability for use by others in the organization. To support this point, he made a distinct ion between explicit knowledge that is easily shared with that which is not by introducing the notion of rationalized knowledge and embedded knowledge within the context of professional services organizations. Rationalized knowledge is general, context independent, standardized, and public. Weiss suggested that because this knowledge has been separated from its original source and is independent of specific individuals, this knowledge is readily shared and available to all those who seek it. Embedded knowledge, on the other hand, is context dependent, narrowly applicable, personalized, and may be personally or professionally sensitive. Therefore, explicit knowledge that is embedded in nature is not likely to be easily shared among individuals. However, knowledge must be seen as more than just explicit and tacit in nature. Regardless of whether knowledge is tacit or explicit, the value attributed to it also has a significant impact on whether and how individuals share it. 2.3.3 Value of knowledge Knowledge is increasingly perceived as being commercially valuable, and its ownership is being recognized by both individuals and the organizations they work in (Brown Woodland, 1999). When individuals perceive the knowledge they possess as a valuable commodity, knowledge sharing becomes a process mediated by decisions about what knowledge to share, when to share, and who to share it with (Andrews and Delahaye, 2000). In situations in which it is valued highly, individuals may tend to claim emotional ownership of knowledge (Jones and Jordan, 1998). This sense of ownership comes from the fact that in several settings, individual knowledge is linked to status, career prospects, and individual reputations (Andrews and Delahaye, 2000). The sharing of such knowledge is a complex process, and Jones and Jordan (1998) found that it involved, among other things, the extent to which individuals perceived themselves to be valued by their organization. Certain types of knowledge are valued highly by both individuals and organizations. For example, knowledge related to research and development is valued highly because of its commercial and scientific value. Research suggests that in research and development organizations, creative power resides in a relatively small number of individuals (Armbrecht et al., 2001), creating issues of ownership particularly because it is linked to tangible outcomes such as creation of new products, patents, research grants, and individual incomes. Therefore, in highly competitive environments or those in which knowledge has high commercial value, there exists a dilemma resulting from contradictory incentives to share knowledge and to withhold it. In organizations in which an individuals knowledge becomes his or her primary source of value to the firm, sharing this knowledge might potentially result in diminishing the value of the individual, creating a reluctance to engage in knowledge-sharing activities. Professionals, in particular, tend to guard their knowledge as they perceive that their own value to the firm is a product of the knowledge they possess (Weiss, 1999). Any reluctance to share knowledge is further heightened in situations characterized by uncertainties and insecurities, such as mergers and acquisitions (Armbrecht et al., 2001). 2.3.4 Motivation to Share Knowledge is intimately and inextricably bound with peoples egos and occupations and does not flow easily across the organization. According to Stenmark (2001), People are not likely to share knowledge without strong personal motivation. Motivational factors that influence knowledge sharing between individuals can be divided into internal and external factors. Internal factors include the perceived power attached to the knowledge and the reciprocity that results from sharing. External factors include relationship with the recipient and rewards for sharing. Knowledge as power, the increasing importance given to knowledge in organizations, and the increasing value attributed to individuals who possess the right kind of knowledge are conducive to creating the notion of power around knowledge. If individuals perceive that power comes from the knowledge they possess, it is likely to lead to knowledge hoarding instead of knowledge sharing. According to Brown and Woodland, individuals use knowledge for both control and defense (Armbrecht et al., 2001).In a competitive environment, withholding knowledge from those considered competitors is often regarded as being useful to attaining ones goals. Power politics is therefore an important aspect of knowledge sharing in organizations (Weiss, 1999). Blackler, Crump, and McDonald (1998) concurred with the notion that knowledge can be perceived as a source of power in organizations. They suggested that because knowledge is always situated within a particular context, it is natural that culture and power dynamics within the context affect the way knowledge is perceived and used. Reciprocity or the mutual give-and-take of knowledge can facilitate knowledge sharing if individuals see that the value-add to them depends on the extent to which they share their own knowledge with others. Reciprocal acts as those in which individuals help others and share information without negotiation of terms and without knowledge of whether or when the other will reciprocate. Reciprocity as a motivator of knowledge sharing implies that individuals must be able to anticipate that sharing knowledge will prove worthwhile (Weiss, 1999). It is the expectation that those involved in sharing knowledge will be able to acquire or benefit from some of the value created by their involvement. Empirical evidence for the relationship between reciprocity and knowledge sharing indicates that receiving knowledge from others stimulates a reciprocal flow of knowledge in the direction of the sender both horizontally and vertically in organizations (Schulz, 2001). Support for the relationship between reciprocity and knowledge sharing was also found by Hall (2001). Reciprocity is also thought to be a motivator of knowledge sharing in communities of practice where knowledge sharing results in enhancing participants expertise and providing opportunities for recognition. 2.3.5 Opportunities to Share Opportunities to share knowledge in organizations can be both formal and informal in nature. Formal opportunities include training programs, structured work teams, and technology-based systems that facilitate the sharing of knowledge. Stenmark (2001) referred to these asformal interactions, and Hall (2001) called them purposive learning channelsthose that are designed to explicitly acquire and disseminate knowledge. Informal opportunities include personal relationships and social networks that facilitate learning and the sharing of knowledge Weiss (1999) referred to these informal opportunities as relational learning channels. Purposive learning channels provide individuals with a structured environment in which to share knowledge. Armbrecht et al (2001) identified some formal interventions that facilitate knowledge sharing in organizations, from basic instructions to share knowledge, to more complex interventions such as Nominal Group Technique and the Delphi Technique. However, knowledge shared through formal channels tends to be mainly explicit in nature (Yang ,2007) The advantages of purposive learning channels are that they are able to connect a large number of individuals and they allow for the speedy dissemination of shared knowledge, especially through electronic networks and other technology-based systems. Empirical evidence for successful knowledge sharing through formal channels was found by Chini (2004) and Tan (2010) Although purposive learning channels play an important role in facilitating knowledge sharing, research indicates that the most amount of knowledge is shared in informal settings through the relational learning. Relational channels facilitate face-to-face communication, which allows for the building of trust, which in turn is critical to sharing knowledge. These informal opportunities to interact with other people help individuals develop respect and friendship, which influences their behavior Lim (2005) called this relation al embeddedness the kind of personal relationships that people develop when they interact with each other over a period of time. 2.3.6 Culture of the Work Environment The factors described above are important to understanding the manner in which knowledge is shared between individuals. However, all of these factors are influenced by the culture of the work environment the culture of the subunit and/or the culture of the organization at large. Organizational culture is increasingly being recognized as a major barrier to effective knowledge creation, sharing, and use (Weiss,1999). Organizations are essentially cultural entities Lim (2005) and therefore, regardless of what organizations do to manage knowledge, the influences of the organizations culture are much stronger. Dyer (1998) defined culture as a pattern of basic assumptions that is developed by a group as they grapple with and develop solutions to everyday problems. When these assumptions work well enough to be considered valid, they are taught to new members as the appropriate way to approach these problems. Schein further added that a key part of every culture is a set of assumptions about how to determine or discover what is real and how members of a group take an action, how they determine what is relevant information, and when they have enough of it, to determine whether to act and what to do. Culture is therefore reflected in the values, norms, and practices of the organization, where values are manifested in norms that in turn shape specific practices (Kasim, 2008). Weiss (1999) identified certain aspects of organizational culture that influence knowledge sharing culture shapes assumptions about which knowledge is important, it control
Friday, September 20, 2019
Design of Hybrid Filter With Wavelet Denoising Simranjit Kaur DESIGN OF HYBRID FILTER WITH WAVELET DENOISING AND ANISOTROPIC DIFFUSION FILTER FOR IMAGE DESPECKLING 1. INTRODUCTION Digital images are images which are formed of picture elements also termed as pixels. The pixels typically are arranged in a rectangular array. The dimensions of the pixel array determine its size. Its width is defined by the number of columns, and height by the number of rows in that array. Digital images are susceptible to various types of noise.Speckleis a form of noise which exists in and decreases the quality of the activeÃ radarÃ andÃ synthetic aperture radarÃ (SAR) images. Image denoising is an essential task in image processing, both as a component in other processes and as a process itself. Various methods are there to denoise the image. A good image denoising model preserves edges, while removing noise. If the window size is quite large, then the over smoothing will occur and edges become blur out. If the size of window is small, then the smoothing property of the window decreases and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t remove the speckle noise that efficiently. Secondly, in the traditional filters there is no enhancement of edges. Thirdly these existing filters are non directional. Finally, the thresholds which are used in the existing filters, although are inspired by statistical arguments, they are ad hoc improvements which only display the drawbacks of the window-based approach. So, inorder to alleviate this problem, hybrid filter with Wavelet denoising and anisotropic diffusion filter, has been proposed. In this model, we work on the drawbacks of the previous models such as oversmoothing of the images and unnecessaryremoval of the edges. 1.1 SCOPE OF STUDY The scope of work for this model is finding an accurate technique for the development of a hybrid despeckling model whose main purpose is to preserve the edges of the image and avoid oversmoothing during denoising. We have to study various previous techniques and on the basis of the study we will develop a model which overcomes the flaws of existing despeckling methods while improving the quality parameters in the end of filtering process. 2. OBJECTIVES To reduce the speckle noise. To improve the parameters like peak signal to noise ratio, equivalent no of looks and coefficient of correlation. Tocreate a better image processing algorithm To investigate the proper selection of wavelet filters and thresholding scheme which yields optimal visual enhancement of SAR images. Tocreate a better image processing algorithm for denoising technique. To design a hybrid filter from the two existing filters for removal of noise in uniform regions from the image. 3. BRIEF LITERATURE SURVEY Until now, several researches and case studies have been reported about wavelet denoising . Yuan Gao and Zhengyao Bai  proposed a speckle reduction method which is based on curvelet domain in SAR images. In this technique, curvelet transform is mapped with wavelet filtering. In the first step, multiplicative noise is converted in to additive noise. Second step is to compute the threshold, by using soft and hard thresholding curvelet coefficients are thresholded. Lastly, opposite CT and exponential transform are applied to reconstruct the original image. This shows that this method is better than other filtering techniques. S.Sudha et al.  proposed a tool for noise removal in ultrasound images. The comparison shows that the proposed technique provides better results than other existing techniques. Manish Goyal and Gianetan Singh Sekhon  applied wavelet based hybrid thresholding techniques: firstly applied the statistical technique and then filtering based on bayes threshold. Then results are calculated which is followed by applying soft thresholding. The experimental results show that this filter gives better results. Alka Vishwa, Shilpa Sharma  created a simple context-based model for the selection of threshold within a wavelet denoising model. Estimations of the local variance with appropriate weights are used for thresholding. Although, it is seen that the denoised image, during removal of a substantial amount of noise also suffers practically node gradation in the sharpness and details. The experimental result shows that this proposed method yields significantly improved visual quality and also better PSNR in comparison with the other techniques for the denoising. Rohit Verma,Jahid Ali  has discussed different types of noise that can creep in image during acquisition. In the second section various filtering techniques are presented that can be used for denoising the digital image. Experimental results found that the BM3D along with median filters gave better results and the averaging and minimum filters performed the worst. BM3D is best choice of removing Salt and pepper noise. In all other cases median filter is considered more suitable. K.Bala Prakash ,R.Venu Babu and Venu Gopal  proposed a new technique which is independently select the filter for different types of images. In this technique a new independent filter will automatically check which filter gives better results in images,. The results are computed using different parameters. The experimental results shows that proposed technique gives better results than other techniques. Mashaly et al.  introduced a new technique which is based on morphological operations. In this paper Synthetic aperture radar images are used. In this morphological operations are applied to remove the speckle noise reduction and the results are compared with different filtering techniques such as adaptive and non adaptive filters. Adib Akl and Charles Yaacoub  proposed a method for image denoising that uses wavelet denoising and an adaptive form of the Kuan filter that results in a significant removal of speckle noise. The results are tested in respect of the peak signal to noise ratio, equivalent no of looks and coefficient of correlation. Udomhunskal and Wongsita  presented a method for Ultrasonicspeckledenoisingusingthe hybrid technique which is based on wavelet transform and wiener filter to reduce thespecklenoisewhile preserving the details. In this method, firstly apply the 2D discrete wavelet transform for the noisy image. Then, the wiener filter isapplied to each detail subband. The results found that this method removes the ultrasonicspeckle more efficiently. 4. GAPS IN STUDY 5. PROBLEM FORMULATION The basic idea of this model is the estimation of the uncorrupted image from the noisy image or distorted image known as Ã¢â¬Å"image denoisingÃ¢â¬ . To remove noisy distortions, there are various methods to help restore an image. Choosing the best method plays a very important role for getting the desired image. There are various existing techniques to remove the Speckle Noise Reduction but due to some drawbacks these techniques cannot remove Speckle Noise efficiently. The major drawbacks of the existing filters are: The adaptive filters like Lee filter, Kuan filter and Frost filter are not able to perform a full removal of Speckle without losing any edges because they rely on local statistical data and this Statistical data related to the filtered pixel value and this data depends upon the filter window over an area. As these existing filters are very much sensitive to the Window Shape and Window Size. If the Window Shape is very much larger than over smoothing will occurs. As window size is smaller than the Smoothing Capability of the Window will decrease. So, to overcome these limitations we proposed a new hybrid technique that combines Wavelet based denoising and anisotropic diffusion filter. As Wavelet is Frame based Approach, it does not dependent on Space or Time. Wavelet also provides better Resolution. In Anisotropic diffusion filter, it is based on partial differential equation. It does not depends upon the window size but, on Mean Square Error approach. So it provides better filtering capability and enhances the edges. By applying these techniques the efficiency of the system is increased and noise is reduced to the greater extent. 6.METHODOLOGY Wavelet denoising is a modern approach to denoising which is not based on local statistical data. The wavelet denoising is a frame based approach. In this approach, a wavelet transform is applied on the image, followed by thresholding method. In the end, an inverse wavelet transform is applied to the image for lengthening the image components after they were reduced during wavelet decomposition. A speckled image can be expressed in the form of k=m*n Where m is the original image and the n is noise with mean and unknown variance. The following diagram explains the DWT-denoising.Wavelet-based denoising consists of: Applying the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) to the noisy image k, Thresholding the detail coefficients, and Finally applying inverse discrete wavelet transform (IDWT) technique on the threshold coefficients to obtain an estimation of the original image kas shown in Figure1. Figure1. Block diagram of wavelet denoising Theimage k is inserted in the filter in the logarithmic form i.e. k=m+n. After wavelet transform W is applied, it results in W(k). W(k) undergoes the thresholding process which results in T(W(k)) which is represented asfwin the figure 1.Finally, the de-speckled image is extracted using the inverse transform W-1. Anisotropic diffusion filter: In anisotropic diffusion the main method is to smoothen within the region in preference to the smoothening across the edges. Without bias due to the filter window shape and size the partial differential equation based removal approach allows the generation of image scales consisting of set of filtered image. So, anisotropic diffusion is adaptive and does not utilize the hard thresholds to alter performance in homogeneous areas or in region near edges and small features. This is quite edge sensitive. In the anisotropic diffusion filter, conduction coefficient is taken to be one within given region it is zero near the edges. Equation for anisotropic diffusion is as given I (x, 0) = =div (F) + Ã¢â¬â Here I is input image, is the initial image, div (F) is diffusion flux and is entire coefficient Overview of Framework First load the image using a MATLAB processing tool box and add speckle noise into in the image which can be seen in the form black and white dots. After image is loaded it will pass through wavelet denoising filter where log transformation is applied so as to decrease the multiplicative nature of the image by making it additive for easing the removal process.Here Bayes Shrink Threshold is used for thresholding process. The Bayesian Shrinkage contains a soft-threshold and minimizes the Bayesian risk. Shrink threshold is calculated by considering a Generalized Gaussian Distribution. After that an Inverse wavelet transform will be applied on the threshold output, so as to extract the image. After applying the Wavelet Transform, hybrid of the anisotropic filter and wavelet will be formed, sothat it provides better results than simple Wavelet denoising techniques. After the image passes through the filter, results will be evaluated in terms of peak signal to noise ratio, Coefficient of c orrelation and equivalent No of looks. These results will show that the hybrid model gives better results than other existing techniques. Figure 2.Basic flowchart depicting the despeckling of an image using hybrid model. 7. FACILITIES REQUIRED FOR PROPOSED WORK The various hardware and software facilities of the proposed model are given as under : Hardware Requirements: Intel Core CPU 3 GB RAM Windows server Software Requirements: MATLAB Software(R2012a) 32 bit (win32) 8. PROPOSED PLACE OF WORK Department of Computer Science Engineering, Chandigarh Engineering College, Landran Mohali, India REFERENCES
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The Time is Night is a short novel by Liudmila Petrushevskaya. It is one of the few stories that I enjoy reading over and over again. The reason is that each time I re-read it, I perceive it in a slightly different way. The complicity of characters and the style of the novel is what I would like to emphasize most about the novel, as well as the fact that The Time is Night represents an outstanding social awareness of the author. As an introduction, Liudmila Petrushevskaya writes that what readers are about to see is a diary that was sent to her by the daughter of the author of the diary after her mother's death. The notes that make up the diary are those of a woman, a poet, describing her living during the late 1980's, her children and her 4-year-old grandson Tima whom she calls Baby. The woman's name is Anna. It is very symbolic to her; when people ask her what her name is, she replies, "I am nearly a namesake of a famous poet. Guess, my name is Anna Andianovna." The poet she is a "namesake" of is Anna Andreevna Akhmatova, one of the most symbolic poets of the silver century of the Russian poetry. Anna carries this cross through her entire life. There are only two roles she has: a poet and a woman defending a child from misery and starvation. I assume she is not a really good poet, she never gets published and gets very little money but that is not the point. She says that she writes for herself, if she stops, she will die. This is very true. The two ma...
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Balien Valley, New Guinea Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Dani tribe lives in the Balien Valley of New Guinea. The Valley is very green and full of tropical life. The tribe is spread among a network of small villages. Each village consists of ten to thirty individuals of the same or closely related family. Villagers live in huts made of local grasses and sticks. The women farm while the men the weave and protect the tribe from enemy raids. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Dani are in constant warfare with a neighboring tribe. They believe that if someone dies from enemy hands then they have to be avenged. Wars are mostly fought to avenge deaths, to settle quarrels between the tribes, and just because some enjoyed fighting. Wars are fought with bow and arrows and spears with barbs, the barbs attach themselves in the enemyÃ¢â¬â¢s flesh, making it very painful to remove. Warfare is very structured and full of rules to which both sides comply. Battles do not begin until both sides have all their men present. No wars or raids take place at night. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ghosts control the people by fear. The ghosts come from discontent or neglected spirits of the dead. Ghosts dominate the night. They strike fear into all. During the night they hide along the paths and wait to eat whoever passes. The ghosts also eat the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s food, the bananas in the forest and the crops in the gardens. Since the ghosts are so feared the people take preventative steps to make sure that their tribeÃ¢â¬â¢s spirits are always content. When a tribe member is killed, the tribe must avenge that death or they go through spiritual decline. The dead are bathed with pig fat or else their spirit would feel neglected. A Wyantonafe, Pig Treasure Ceremony, renews their spiritual self and strengthens the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s spirits. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the mourning the men go to their towers to watch for enemy advancements, during this time the men also weave. Women do not weave, most of the older women wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to because fingers are cut off after a death of a close family member. If the men see no sign of the enemy they set a fire telling the women that itÃ¢â¬â¢s safe to go to their farms. The men only do the farms hardest work. The women do work around the huts and in the farm. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The children learn the their roles in the tribe by imitating those older than them.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
For years, man has illustrated his willingness to perform injustices to those weaker than he. From the bully in the schoolyard, to the king and his court, it seems that man has a desire to control and dominate others. Oroonoko, by Aphra Behn, illustrates that slavery is unethical, humiliating, demoralizing, and worse than death. Oroonoko is a powerful story about the tribulations of a gallant prince named Oroonoko. Throughout the novel, he is shown to be a brave prince and a friend to many. He is given command over an army and shows his military and strategical prowess by winning his battles and conquering his enemies. In the beginning of the novel, the prince presents Imoinda, the daughter of his foster father, with a gift of slaves that had been captured in his victorious battles. For Oroonoko, slavery was accepted and part of his daily life. However, in the novel, Behn presents slavery as a controversial and central issue towards the downfall of Oroonoko. Is it ethical to enslave another human and own them like a piece of property? What does the novel say about an issue such as slavery? The book, in fact, condemns this type of horrific behavior. She illustrates this issue by showing that slavery is demoralizing and humiliating to the people who are involuntary subjected to this kind of torment. In the beginning of the story, Behn describes the native people of Surinam, a colony in the West Indies, as beautiful, respectable, and friendly. Behn says, Ã¢â¬Å"for those we live with in perfect amity, without daring to command Ã¢â¬Ëem; but, on the contrary, caress Ã¢â¬Ëem with all the brotherly and friendly affection in the world. Ã¢â¬ The natives are very useful to immigrants who came from other areas of the world into Surinam. Behn thought of them as being helpful because she could learn their culture and their everyday style of life. Behn finds it, Ã¢â¬Å"Necessary to caress Ã¢â¬Ëem as friends, and not to treat Ã¢â¬Ëem as slaves. Ã¢â¬ Here, Behn says that treating the people of Surinam as slaves is improper and immoral. She says that friends should not be enslaved because they are helpful and caring. Through this effect, Behn considers slavery as an unethical issue. In the novel, Behn displays slavery as an issue that is associated with misery and torment. This occurs when the prince encounters the English captain who deceitfully places Oroonoko and others in captivity. Oroonoko is portrayed in a state of suffering when he is enslaved, Ã¢â¬Å"We were no sooner arrived but we went up to the plantation to see Caesar; whom we found in a very miserable and unexpressable condition; and I have a thousand times admired how he lived in so much tormenting pain protesting our innocency of the fact, and our abhorrence of such cruelties. Ã¢â¬ While Oroonoko is at the plantation, his attitude is different from when he was the commander of the army. He is miserable, sad, and in a position with less power than he had before. In conjunction with the misery that is involved with slavery, the actions that coincide with a slave such as whippings are also condemned in the novel, Ã¢â¬Å"No, I would not kill myself, even after a whipping, but will be content to live with that infamy, and be pointed at by every grinning slave. Ã¢â¬ Behn depicts a slave as someone one who is mentally and physically humiliated. In general, public humiliation is and torment is an unethical issue and BehnÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of misery, humility, and torment proves that slavery is immoral Oroonoko. In Oroonoko, Behn creates a mindset that favors death over slavery. One situation in the novel where slavery is condemned is when the king threatens to send Imoinda off to another country to be sold as slaves. Ã¢â¬Å"He ought to have had so much value and consideration for a maid of her quality as to have nobly put her to death, and not to have sold her like a common slave; the greatest revenge, and the most disgraceful of any, and to which they a thousand times prefer death. Ã¢â¬ She states that slavery is the perfect revenge against someone who has deceived another. The king orders, that Ã¢â¬Å"they should be both sold off as slaves to another country, either Christian or heathen, Ã¢â¬â¢twas no matter where. This cruel sentence, worse than death, they implored might be reversed. Ã¢â¬ After constantly repeating the idea of someone preferring death many times over slavery in the novel, Behn shows the reader that slavery is unethical. In conclusion, Behn shows that enslaving a friend is wrong, and that slavery brings about humiliation, torture, and grief. Behn uses the morbid effects of slavery to the extent when she categorizes slavery as being many times worse than death. Using these techniques, Behn gives an immoral connotation to slavery in Oroonoko.
Monday, September 16, 2019
LongfellowÃ¢â¬â¢s Eloquent Approach to Death: Analysis of Death in Two Poems Death is an uneasy topic to talk about and causes nearly everyone to have negative feelings for it. Although it is inevitable and also an important part of life, people try to avoid the topic altogether because it gives them discomfort. Because it is such an important subject, one must break the awkward silence and address the topic. Longfellow makes death seem like a natural thing which must come to all living things through his rich comparisons to nature and ordinary life.In Ã¢â¬Å"The Tide Rises, The Tide FallsÃ¢â¬ he compares the continuous rising and falling of tides to a nameless traveler, and in his poem, Ã¢â¬Å"NatureÃ¢â¬ he compares nature and humans as the relationship between a strict mother and her child. In Longfellow's poem, Ã¢â¬Å"The Tide Rises, The Tide FallsÃ¢â¬ he fluently articulates the differences between tides and a nameless traveler. Symbolically, the tides represent the co ntinuous cycle of life and the traveler just represents every single human being in the world.The emphasis on Ã¢â¬Å"The Tide Rises, The Tide FallsÃ¢â¬ at the end of each stanza shows that no matter what happens in an individual's life, life in general and the tides are just going to go on without a single care about the world (5). Additionally, Longfellow gives the traveler no descriptive identity and only labels him as Ã¢â¬Å"The TravelerÃ¢â¬ (4). Because of the word choice, it further shows how unimportant a single person is in the grand scheme of things. Furthermore, there is a distinctive contrasting detail throughout the poem.In many places, Longfellow incorporates light and dark settings into the poem. For example, when darkness settles, the Ã¢â¬Å"sea in the darknessÃ¢â¬ ¦ Efface the footprints in the sandsÃ¢â¬ (7-9). The footprints that were in the sand were left by the traveler, and by effectively removing them, it clearly shows that the travelers presence is for ever forgotten at the beach. Additionally because Ã¢â¬Å"[the traveler] nevermore returnsÃ¢â¬ ¦ to the shoreÃ¢â¬ , it is impossible for him to retrace his journey and imprint his footsteps once again.In essence, the traveler is dead and the tide continues on its duty with disregard for the travelers absence. In contrast, Longfellow makes the connection between life and light. For example, after the tide erases the travelers footsteps, Ã¢â¬Å"The morning breaks;the steed in their stalls Stamp and neigh as the hostler callsÃ¢â¬ (11-12). Because it is morning again, life ensues and the daily activities of another nameless human being starts the cycle all over again since day and night alternate.Basically, Longfellow uses the seemingly peaceful comparison between the tide and traveler to emphasize that death is inevitable and that one must accept it because the world will not stop rotating just because of a death of a human. The second poem is called Ã¢â¬Å"NatureÃ¢â¬ and it in volves the role play of death and life as a strict mother and her child. The poemÃ¢â¬â¢s comparison sheds light on the harsh reality that all humans will inevitably meet their end someday. Symbolically, the mother represents mother nature and the child is any type of living thing.The poem starts off by stating the mother is trying to get her child to go to sleep with a certain degree of difficulty. The child is Ã¢â¬Å"half willing, half reluctant to be ledÃ¢â¬ and is unwilling to Ã¢â¬Å"leave his broken playthings on the floorÃ¢â¬ (3-4). From these two lines of the poem, it is evident that the child is conflicted because it is unsure whether to stay with his materialistic comforts or to be led by his mother to go to sleep which is a strange experience to him. This can be compared to how humans view death as a strange and unknown thing.Being human, it is understandable that they are hesitant to even consider the possibility of death. Additionally, Longfellow describes the chi ld's playthings as Ã¢â¬Å"brokenÃ¢â¬ which brings out the fact that they are old and damaged, which can be compared to someone who is on the verge of death (4). From this, the conclusion can be drawn that the child is unsure whether to follow his mother into an unknown world or to stay with what has given him comfort throughout his life. In addition, Longfellow also states that this new experience may not give the child as much pleasure as his materialistic things.Realistically, Longfellow is trying to emphasize that death is a very controversial topic and it is natural for humans to be weary and worried about it. In the third stanza, Longfellow states that nature deals with the worried feelings towards death by taking away Ã¢â¬Å"our playthings one by one, and by the hand Leads us to rest so gentlyÃ¢â¬ (10-11). From these two lines, Longfellow states that in order for humans to be convinced to take the risk of leaving their materialistic comforts, mother nature must gradually take them away.Because humans lose what they love so gradually, they Ã¢â¬Å"go Scarce knowing if (they) wish to go or stayÃ¢â¬ in bed (11-12). By doing this, mother nature effectively decreases the amount of animosity and tension between humans and death by allowing humans to enjoy themselves while they still can. However, all good things must come to an end and eventually, the older the human, the weaker he gets. With the added weakness and lack of things he can do, since mother nature has taken them away, death may seem as a beneficial solution in comparison to one's current life.Through this poem, Longfellow, with the use of personification, successfully changes societies outlook on death from a scary, sudden process into one that is gradual and has a touch of motherly tenderness. Being a renowned writer, Longfellow has the ability to craft his words to best capture the meaning of his idea. In this case, he gives the reader another outlook on a very scary topic, death. Throug h the use of his highly descriptive comparisons between nature and ordinary life, he is able to make death seem like a natural stage of human life and that humans should not think about it so much because mother nature will take care of it.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
My most appreciated song on this earth today is Ã¢â¬Å"Gimme DatÃ¢â¬ , by Ciara. This is my most appreciated song because this song fits my personality. It has a combination and a justified amount of both dancing and singing. The song itself puts on a certain performance toward the listeners, and it gives meaning to the singer/songwriter. The style of this song is a very up-beat tempo; itÃ¢â¬â¢s a hip-hop song. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a song that Deejays would play in clubs and at parties; because people can actually feel the beat of this song and turn it into one of their own. The artist of the song (Ciara) is a very well known artist. Ciara is one of the Ã¢â¬Å"sexiestÃ¢â¬ female hip-hop & R&B artist that are alive and in action today. She has been making music, singing music, and even choreographing music with her artistic styles ever since 2002. Ciara is a great artist and I think that all her fans would agree with me on that. The song titled, Ã¢â¬Å"Gimme DatÃ¢â¬ is about Ciara coming back into show biz. Ciara has been away for a while creating her new album, and when she got herself back into the spotlight, she started with this song to let people know that sheÃ¢â¬â¢s back and ready to do anything. My favorite part of the song is when Ciara says: Ã¢â¬Å"I been gone for too long, but its time to bring it back; gimme dat bassÃ¢â¬ ! When Ciara uses these words together and then begins to dance right along with it it brings so much power to her video, song and performance. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what I really like about music; the performance, the power of the song, the meaning, the routines to the song, etc. This is my favorite song because Ciara really puts joy and a shining light into my heart. She makes me feel like I can come right out and do what I want to do, make whatever I want to make and just give my fans the performance they need. I feel inspired when I listen to this song; because I love dancing, I love singing, I love goofing around and giving my audience/listeners something they would want to hear. The song says: yeah, yeah, you like it when I move it to the beat like dat, got that bong up in your trunk, drop them speakers and turn it up, gimme dat bassÃ¢â¬ ! This song just keeps me in my hype mode; it keeps me going every day. Every single moment I listen to it IÃ¢â¬â¢m either always dancing to it, singing to it or fantasing about how great it would be to have been in that video or created my own, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s similar to it; but of course I would try to have the best song ever; and even though Ciara is great I think I can beat her to that one Grammy!
Saturday, September 14, 2019
The backbone of Cyprus economy when it achieved its independence was agriculture. The major contribution came from small farms and at times from subsistence farms. Exportation of vegetables and fruits were made possible by irrigation projects in the nineteen sixties. The demands for wine, meat and dairy products were met by commercialized farming.In the early nineteen seventies, the farms suppliedÃ about seventy percent of commodity exports and employed one third of the island's active population despite the fact that the farms were still overwhelmingly small. However, the expansion of manufacturing and service sector led to a decline in the importance of agriculture.The share of agriculture's Gross Domestic Product in the first half of the nineteen seventies amounted to eighteen percent.The northern Turkish Cypriot community was left in possession of agricultural resources with the nineteen seventy four de facto division of the island. It produced four-fifth of cereal and citr us crops, all of the tobacco and two thirds of the green fodder.The south on the other hand retained the entire island's grape growing areas and deciduous fruit orchards. The south was also in possession of about seventy fiver percent of the valuable potato crops and other vegetables and half of the island's olive trees. It also had sixty three percent of its carob trees.Two thirds of the livestock population was also in the south. A large scale uncoordinated exchange of agricultural labor between the north and south was created by the Turkish occupation of the region. This led to agricultural unemployment which was countered by government actions. Such government actions included assisting farmers financially under terms that would enable them to carry out their activities without much burden.By nineteen seventy eight, the number of individuals employed in the agricultural sector under government controlled area constituted twenty three percent of the working population. The agr icultural sector's workforce however declined to 20.7 percent in nineteen seventy nine and 15.8 percent in nineteen eighty seven.Its contribution to the overall economy of the state also declined from 17.3 percent GDP in nineteen seventy six to ten point seven percent in nineteen seventy nine and a further seven point seven percent in nineteen ninety eight.This share was vital to the economy of the south. In nineteen eighty eight, value added in agriculture at constant nineteen ninety five prices amounted to one hundred and twelve million-seven hundred thousand Cyprus pound.As the service sector increasingly became dominant in the economy of the Greek Cypriots, the share of agriculture in the national economy declined even further in the nineteen nineties. However, the favorable climate of the region and the availability of market owing to its location still mean that agriculture will continue playing an important and stable role in the overall economy.The irrigation projects set by the government, tax policies and subsidies encouraged the existence of farming as well as research in exotic crops and new varieties of the ones that already exist. The effort to improve agriculture, forestry and fishing was overseen by the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources.This ministry was supported by Agricultural Research Institute, Meteorological Service, Department of Water Services, the Veterinary Service and the Department of Geological Survey. All these departments worked together in formulation of policies that affect the sector.The government also encouraged agriculture in addition to macroeconomic considerations since it offered the rural population employment which maintained village life and relieved urban crowding. Part time agricultural work also allowed the urban residents to maintain contact with their villages besides offering them supplemental income.The contribution of agriculture to the national economy has steadily declined. However, in t he past decade it has stabilized between three and four percent. In 2004, the contribution of agriculture to exports went up to twenty four percent which is the highest since nineteen ninety six. This is near the historical thirty four year average.The number of individuals employed in the agricultural sector has also declined remarkably. In 2005, only four point eight percent were employed in the agricultural sector as compared to about thirty percent in nineteen sixties.This percentage is however higher for men at 5.7 percent than women at 3.7 percent. Of this population, about are holders and family members while the remaining one out of five are employees. These numbers are larger in crop than in livestock sector. Since 2001, full time working equivalent has been around seven percent.In 2003, the gross agricultural output went up and remained steady through 2004. However, with regard to quantity, the crop output has been steadily falling and is about eighty eight percent o f what it used to be in nineteen ninety five.On the other hand, livestock output has been going up and now stands at above one-hundred percent of the nineteen ninety five figures. In 2004, prices were fourteen percent higher than in 1995 with the crop prices recording higher percentage points than livestock prices. Crop prices were between five to twenty percent higher even though the gap is being closed by livestock prices.Overview of agricultural and rural sector developmentCrop area consist of thirty percent permanent crop area and seventy percent temporary crop area. About forty to forty five percent of the total area hold cereals with fifteen to twenty percent of the total holding fodder crops which shows a decrease after a steady increase until two thousand.Vine area has recorded a decrease from eighteen percent in nineteen ninety to eleven percent of the total in two thousand and two. This was largely due to the incentives that were paid to farmers in an attempt to avoid o verproduction of vines.A small increase was exhibited by olives on olive oil production to eight percent of the total. Citrus recorded a decrease by one percent in the year two thousand but has then been stable. Three percent of the total area is occupied by fresh fruits. Both the fresh fruits and citrus are completely irrigable. Uncultivated land remained relatively constant at between thirty five and forty percent of the total area.The most extreme fluctuation was recorded by barley with thirty seven thousand tons being produced in the year two thousand as compared with one-hundred and twenty eight thousand tons produced two years later. An average yield of two point four tons per hectare is represented by the 2002 production.The fluctuation highlight Cyprus' periodical water shortage and the annual weather changes. The falling grapes production represents the decrease in the cultivated area. After a big decrease in the year two thousand, the production of grape fruit has steadied .Generally, the production of citrus fruits has shown a gradual decrease since nineteen ninety but it has steadied to some extent during the past few years. Extreme fluctuations are not often recorded by potatoes but their massive share in agricultural output and exports implies that their fluctuation impacts greatly on agricultural economy.Olives have constantly increased to reach more than twenty seven thousand tons. This figure is twice what it was some few years ago. This can be attributed to the increase in irrigable land.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Desiging and Early College High School for African American Males - Dissertation Example In many instances the latter may be an issue, especially when some teachers are afraid of young African American males (Brown, 2011). To this end, there are programs in the United States that provide mentoring for African American boys who need attention to help them prepare for college (Brown, 2011). The reason mentoring is so crucial is because public schools have traditionally misunderstood how to work with African American males to the point that they are not given the opportunities to partake in Ã¢â¬Å"classes offering enriched educational offeringsÃ¢â¬ (Holzman, 2010, p. 4). For many African American males this means that they go to prison rather than college and they only find low wage jobs as a consequence of such tendencies (Holzman, 2010). This is not the intended plight of these students. They are viable students that can make a strong contribution to society if they are given a chance. Generally, African American males have a lower graduation rate than Caucasian studen ts and other minorities. According to the Educational Testing Service (ETS) (2011) African American males fail at a tremendous rate. ... In a regular high school this is well below the standard of Caucasian students who show 38 percent proficiency in reading by fourth grade and 44 percent proficiency in math by eighth grade (ETS, 2011). There is no doubt that something must be done to help African American males succeed. The New School Concept Across the United States, the development of new schools to provide parents with different choices for their children grew, because of the Now Child Left Behind Act of 2001. This Act created opportunities for schools to work with students in different ways, and it called for children to be proficient in certain areas at certain times in their education. This Act was to close the achievement gap between Caucasian students and minority students (blacks and Hispanics) but it but it created more of a gap for African American students instead of closing the gap (Knaus, 2007). Part of the challenge for many schools has been that they are given teachers who are unprepared to teach Afri can American students (Knaus, 2007). In large urban areas, where there is a large amount of poverty, schools may have Ã¢â¬Å"three times as many uncertified or out-of-field teachers of low-poverty schoolsÃ¢â¬ (Knaus, 2007, p. 1). When African American males become resistant to this type of schooling and choose not to attend, they can be subject to moves to other types of schools like Ã¢â¬Å"continuationÃ¢â¬ schools or alternatives schools, and then to the juvenile justice system (Knaus, 2007, p. 1). This is not the type of situation that society needs for its African American youth. Central to the success of any school and especially new schools is the quality of the educators who work with
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Team Building 1 - Essay Example 2. Self-Directed Teams: Self Directed teams are self-managed and take the responsibility of completely managing the entire work segments or processes. In general, these are highly experienced, skilled and knowledgeable groups having considerable power in terms of directing, making decisions and ownership of the entire job (West, 2012) . Self directed teams can be found in companies as teams handling an entire production line or an entire category of brand. A self-directed team can be best utilized by cross-training activities that will help them in mastering their job. Cross-training will also allow better flexibility within the team thereby generating higher performance among team members (Cook, Mangla & Ummer, 2009). 3. Decision team: Decision teams are often found in highest positions in an organization. For instance, the board of directors or strategic management team handle importance decision making task such as setting organizational objectives, long-term and short term vision and strategies for sales and development of products and services. This team is also generally in charge of the strategic and financial plans. The decision team can be best utilized in creating external corporate contacts and developing networks for funding and long-term development and sustainability of the organization (Dyer, W.G., Dyer, Jr & Dyer, G. H. 2007). After consulting with numerous teams and conducting extensive research on the performance, analysts have discovered four Ã¢â¬Å"CsÃ¢â¬ which teams need to understand as well as manage for achieving a superior performance. The four Cs are as follows; 1. Context: Context for teams refers to environment within the organization wherein a team must act. High performance teams are known to manage context in an efficient manner by 1) establishing team goals that are measurable, compelling and clear, 2) Making team work a critical component for achieving
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Globalization - Essay Example Furthermore, the paper also discusses PESTEL Analysis and what benefits does it have in UK economy and their drawbacks. Lastly, it describes the future of globalization. The term Ã¢â¬ËGlobalizationÃ¢â¬â¢ is defined as a process of integration which has been derived from the human connectivity and their exchange of ideas, products and different aspects of their culture and trends. In other words globalization is represented as a new term for changes in International relations which was exploited in the end of the twentieth century. Globalization refers to the larger context with respect to the globe rather than in a national context. The advancements and breakthroughs in transportation and telecommunication play an important role in the rise of globalization alongside with the increase use of the internet which has led to the growth in globalization. When economies are interconnected with each other, it has provided an opportunity for globalization to occur (Jones 2010). Globaliza tion has various meanings and it has been the source of argument in the recent decade about its true meaning. Albrow (1990) argues that globalization is far broader concept than interconnection and relations between the different objects. He explained that globalization is referred to all those processes by which different people of the world and different products of the world are incorporated to form a single concept or a society (Gupta 2009). However, many of the terms superseded the previous terms due to change in the nature of the world. Appadurai (1996) suggested that globalization is the process of mixing of the culture with respect to different locations and identities of regions. The author tried to propose that globalization will occur if people from different identities and regions would come together and blend their culture to form one idea is to be known as globalization (Appadurai 1996). Carnoy (2001) defines globalization as the weakening of the state when it cannot c ope up with the environment. This implies that if a country fails to adapt to the new conditions of the world in the global environment, then it blends up with the environment itself for keeping themselves alive in the market (Munck 2005). Many scholars have traced back the history to gather information on the origins of globalization which was found to present before the European age of discovery. When people moved to different regions, they tried to adapt to the certain environment and to the cultures of the particular region. It is where the role of globalization play its part when people share different ideas and merge it to become one single idea (Jones 2010). Aspects of Globalization Globalization has both the social and economical aspects, if understood; it can help nations to achieve greater heights of success and growth. In economical terms, it is the rapprochement of countries and their flow of goods and capital from one place to another due to various inventions that has been made by countries. The first wave occurred in the era of economic boom which made Great Britain to realize its capability and brought the nation into foreground. Many scholars term the modern globalization as the increase in the technological achievements of a country which have made possible for people to migrate and allowed the flow of capital and information to satisfy its needs. Scientific reforms and revolution have created new forms of transportation and the rise of