Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Econometrics Institutions and Growth Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Econometrics Institutions and Growth - Essay Example This paper focuses on the reasons why some countries are wealthier than others, studies such as Daron Acemoglu (2001) focus on colonisation and its effect on institutions. They state that colonisation led to the introduction of institutions which are present today, these institutions are therefore contributed to better economic performance. The role of better institutions in economic performance is supported by North (1973) who states that better institutions would lead to more investment in human capital and this would result into better economic performance will be realised. Besley (1995) studied the relationship between property rights and output and identified that there was strong correlation between the two variables, therefore economic performance will also depends on property rights. In this paper we focus on the role of colonisation and establishment of institutions, we also discuss the effect of property right on GDP and the differences in economic performance and the colonisers of the various countries. A study by Acemoglu (2001) was based on three assumpti... lonisers are present today, these institutions have an effect on income per capita and that colonisers chose areas with low mortality and in areas with high mortality establish extractive institutions. According to the study by Acemoglu (2001) the high mortality rate was as a result of disease such as yellow fever and malaria which was common in the tropic areas, settlers had no immune to these diseases and therefore chose not settle in these areas, settlers settled in the equatorial regions where mortality was relatively low. Therefore we focus on the effect of good institutions and property rights to discuss the differences in the economic performance, according to Douglas North (1973) better institutions and secure poverty rights would lead to more investment in human capital will lead to better economic performance. Besley (1995) also stated that economic performance depends on property rights. It is also evident that the countries considered in previous studies were colonised by a number of countries, a study by Mathew Lange (2006) showed that colonisers had differing effect on post colonial period economic development, his study compared Spain and British colonies that showed that Spain colonies had negative effects on post colonial economic development while British colonies had positive effects on post colonial economic development, some explanation or this effect is associated with the type of institutions left by the colonisers, Landes(1998) stated that a comparison of Spain and British colonies is that British left better institutions. Methodology: The first section of the paper is a description of the sample, the determination the correlation between the various variables under question to determine the nature relationship, measure of central tendencies

Monday, October 28, 2019

Marx and Weber’s Analyses of the Development of Capitalism Essay Example for Free

Marx and Weber’s Analyses of the Development of Capitalism Essay Capitalism is defined as ‘An economic and political system in which a countrys trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit.’ It is based on the division between two classes, one of which owns the labour of the other. Not only do the upper classes, or the bourgeoisie, own the means of physical production but also the means of ‘mental production’. They control and manipulate society through the rule of education, religion and the media. Althusser distinguishes between repressive state apparatuses and ideological state apparatuses and argues about how the bourgeoisie manages to maintain its rule. He argues that the repressive includes the police and the army in which use physical force to control the working class as opposed to the ideological apparatuses such as the media and religion which control the development of ideas. A key component of capitalism is that the working class are forced to sell their labour in exchange for wages in order to survive. However, they do not receive an equal exchange for the labour they produce, but only the cost of subsistence. The difference of what the bourgeoisie receive from the labourers and the amount they pay back is called the surplus value, meaning the profit they make. Max Weber was one of the founding fathers of sociology and contributed highly to our knowledge of how society works. Weber’s work can be highlighted by referring to his study The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, first published in 1905 (22 years after the death of Karl Marx in 1883). Weber argues that the Protestant Reformation introduced a new belief system of Calvinism (a form of Protestantism founded by John Calvin during the reformation) which promoted a high work ethic and which eventually led to the rise in capitalism. Calvinists believed that God preordains the ‘elect’ meaning of who would be saved after death and go onto heaven and who would not. This could not be changed through hard work or leading a good life as the decision had already been decided. This made Calvinists strive for success, with which they would reinvest into making more money, hence the development of capitalism. Weber distinguishes the differences between the capitalism of greed and wealth in past societies to those of present. Modern day people are pursing profit for its own sake rather than for consumption, hence why the Calvinists reinvested their wealth. Weber calls this the spirit of capitalism. He further argues that this was the reason capitalism was stronger in places like Europe and America and not in other places where Protestantism wasnt so established. Weber also distinguishes between many different existing forms of capitalism including ‘traditional capitalism’ and ‘booty capitalism’; however the crucial ideal type is the one named modern capitalism, or rational capitalism meaning the repetitive, ongoing economic activity on the basis of rational calculation. Understanding what needs to happen and what the best way of achieving it is, allows for reinvestment and the growth of economic enterprises. He argues that it is the rational side of modern capitalism that distinguishes it from other advanced economic areas such as China and India, both of which had higher and more advanced infrastructures in the 17th century compared to Europe and America. However, Weber is hugely criticised for his understanding of the rise in capitalism due to others believing that it was the peoples relationship with the material forces and there means of subsidence which drove the change. Weber takes a key focus on religion and the impact that had on the rest of society as well as capitalism, whereas Marx focuses on class conflict. Marx argues that through industrialisation capitalism had been forced to increase due to growing separation of the two contrasting classes. One class is the exploiting bourgeoisie who own the means of production and the other class being the proletariat who own nothing but their own labour. Marx predicted that the working class would eventually become conscious of their alienation and exploitation and unite to overthrow capitalism. This would slowly bring in a system of socialism which would gradually evolve into a pure classless communist society lacking in exploitation. He argued that capitalism would disintegrate due to interior tensions, just like every other social system. He believed that communism was inevitably the next stage in the line of historical changes to class systems. Just as feudalism was replaced by capitalism, so capital ism would be replaced by communism. Marx argues that religion performs a different function than that of what Weber argues. Instead it operates as an ‘ideological weapon’ used by the bourgeoisie to justify the suffering of the poor as something unchangeable and ‘god-given’. Religion persuades the working class that their suffering is honourable and moral and will be favoured in the afterlife. This is evident in the Christianity teaching of it is ‘easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than it is for a rich man to enter the kingdom of heaven’. This manipulates and oppresses the proletariat as it renders them blind to capitalistic trends; ensuing and maintaining false class consciousness. However, Marx can be criticised for ignoring the positive functions that religions perform, made apparent by the psychological adjustment to misfortune that it offers. Abercrombie and Turner (1978) argue that ‘in pre capitalist society, while Christianity was a major element of ruling-class ideology, it had only limited impact on the peasantry’ (A2 Sociology AQA Specification, 2009, pg 13) However, although Marx does argue that religion helps to control the manipulation of ideas of the working class he also believes that it is ‘the heart of the heartless world and the soul of soulless conditions’, as it can act as an distraction to dull the pain of exploitation. When comparing and contrasting two very highly influential historians such as Karl Marx and Max Weber, some would argue that it is highly important to look at their overall impact on society as well as humanity. Karl Marx focused highly on philosophy and his work is still influential in many cultures worldwide today. This contrasts to Max Weber who is considered ‘one of the fathers of modern thought’ and could be considered one of the world’s most intellectual and influential persons. Although both historians share clear similarities, for example both coming from a European Protestant background they also contrast and have distinct differences. Weber criticises Marx’s theory as he believes that his view is too one dimensional and simplistic when looking at inequality. Weber argues that this is due to Marx seeing class as the only important division. Weber argues that status and power also have high impact on the volume of inequality. He points towards the ‘power elite’ for evidence and argues that they can rule without actually owning the means of production. Currently there are many independent companies that can control and rule particular labourers without being a part of the bourgeoisie, it is not as simple as Marx likes to preach. A great amount of people are in other situations than the time when Marx was writing, for example ‘dealers in information, managers and civil servants’, meaning that the relative importance of the struggle between owners and workers has relatively declined. Although Marx and Weber have severe differences in their evaluation of modern capitalism their augments also share many similarities. They both believe that the economic system is a place where â€Å"individuals are directed by abstractions† (Marx). We must also take into account the times of which both sociologists were writing. Weber is writing nearly half a century later and focuses highly on the impact of power, wealth and prestige. He argues that these were the three main factors contributing to capitalism and the distinction of classes. This contrasts to Marx who focuses singularly on the impact of class and how the contrast of bourgeoisie and proletariat impacted on the rise of capitalism. However, both of their summaries of overthrowing capitalism share many similarities. Both sociologists argue that in order for capitalism to be overthrown the working class must unite together to overthrow the ruling class and free themselves from capitalist oppression. Bibliography Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (1932). The German Ideology . Moscow: David Riazanov. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (1848). Manifesto of the communist party. London. Max Weber (1978). Economy and Society. California: University of California Press. Thomas Hobbes (1988). The Leviathan. London : Penguin . Phil Bartle. (2007). Marx vs Weber. Available: Last accessed 10th October 2012. Louis Althusser. (1970). Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. Available: 970. Last accessed 10th October 2012 Michael Lowy. (2006). Marx, Weber and the Critique of Capitalism . Available: . Last accessed 10th October 2012. No Author. (1999). Max Weber. Available: Last accessed 10th October 2012. D. Sayer, Capitalism and Modernity: An Excurses on Marx and Weber, pg. 4, London: Routledge, 1991. Cuff, E. C., W. W. Sharrock and D. W. Francis, Perspectives in Sociology, third edition, London, Routledge, 1992.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Essay --

Abraham Lincoln was born in the winter month of February, on the twelfth day, in the year 1809. He was born in Hardin County, Kentucky to parents Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Hanks. Both of Lincoln’s parents were illiterate but he took it upon himself to learn his ABCs and attend school at a young age. Abraham Lincoln moved around a little e through Indiana and Illinois the first 21 years of his life. While Lincoln was young he worked a lot of odd jobs here and there before breaking into politics and winning a seat in the Illinois legislature at the age of 25. While he served his several terms on the legislature he went to law school and became a lawyer. In 1845 Lincoln successfully won a spot in the U.S Congress and served for one term. He later decided to run for U.S Senate, and even though he did not win, he gained national recognition for being so against slavery. In 1860, Lincoln ran for president, won, and was inaugurated in 1861. Abraham Lincoln met Mary Todd in 1839 while they were both in Springfield Illinois. Even though they had both come from very different families they ...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom :: Action Movies Film Indian Culture Racism Essays

Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom As I sat and watched â€Å"Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom,† the version of the â€Å"Orient† we get in this film is quite clear. Played and acted out by Harrison Ford, he was the all-knowing, adventurous, witty, â€Å"save the day† kind of guy, who just happens to be a professor and archaeologist as well. He knew throughout every scene, how to handle a particular situation even though parts of this country were foreign to him. What makes this â€Å"Orient† stand out even worse is his side kick, â€Å"Willie†, whom he met at the beginning of the movie in a Chinese night club. Kate Capeshaw, better known as Willie, plays the damsel in distress in this one. She plays an irritating â€Å"dumb blonde† who screeches at everything and breaks nails. She makes stupid avoidable mistakes and serves as a meddling stumbling block in Indiana’s path. One scene in particular that portrays her as the typical woman of Western society is when Indiana, Shorty, and her leave the village to head to Pankot Palace on elephants. Soon after boarding each of their own elephants, Willie is putting on perfume not only for herself but onto the elephant as well. This is to cover up the animals’ odor. Miraculously, she just happens to have perfume on her in the middle of India. As one watches â€Å"Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom,† many scenes can be interpreted to represent the Indian culture that Jones, â€Å"Shorty†, and Willie encounter. Although the depiction of this culture seems very real throughout the movie and in certain scenes, the fact of the matter is is that the Indian culture is far from the true reality of life in terms of individual, academic and political levels. In the following paragraphs, I will explain different scenes throughout the movie that destroy the culture and racial background of India. Upon one of the first scenes that takes place ten minutes into the movie, Spielberg (director of the movie), conveys the country of India to be this weird, bizarre, creepy, forested and semi-cannibalistic jungle. I believe this was a crude and untrue portrayal of this country. I feel the worst scene of this movie was the dinner scene. They’re eating out of monkey’s skulls and they make the other culture look like complete barbarians. The eyes in the soup, which Willie sees and is mortified by, only makes the portrayal that much worse.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Humans and Bread

Food is a basic need for the creatures in the world to sustain their daily body methodology. Bread is a regarded as a symbol for life, symbol for prosperity and livelihood from ages. Bread, a food item was discovered primarily in the Middle East and the features of the bread were modified according to the regions it has been introduced. The bread was related to the divine source provided by the eternity. Since wheat is the cultivated in most part of the world and the bread is prepared with wheat. Bread therefore symbolizes food in various forms.Consumption of bread was known in the pre Christian era. In the initial times when bread was introduced to the English speaking countries the villages used to have to community kitchens where the women in every house used to bake their cakes at a common place. The women were regarded as the significant part in the family who nurture the family and their congregation was regarded as significant social involvement. The guests were welcomed in to the houses with a piece of bread and liquor to wish them a better life.The Russians regards bread and vodkha as a sacred combination. The bread which was prepared from wheat was considered basic food. Bread was used as a commodity in Egyptian ages. After the post harvest period people were provided with work and paid bread. Thus bread is considered as money. Bread or wheat was considered as basic ingredient for the livelihood and the rulers were at times conscious about the supply of the grains or bread to huge population in the kingdom.The bakers who tried to adulterate the bread making process were severely punished. The English used to introduce wheat cultivation and bread making in different parts of the world. Bread making even now is a daily routine affair for many families in different countries as it symbolizes a tradition, a habitual action. Now a days people in different parts prepare bread to suit their tastes to make it more nutritious and to include their and love and affection to share with family.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Pliopithecus - Facts and Figures

Pliopithecus - Facts and Figures Name: Pliopithecus (Greek for Pliocene ape); pronounced PLY-oh-pith-ECK-us Habitat: Woodlands of Eurasia Historical Epoch: Middle Miocene (15-10 million years ago) Size and Weight: About three feet tall and 50 pounds Diet: Leaves Distinguishing Characteristics: Short face with large eyes; long arms and legs    About Pliopithecus One of the first prehistoric primates ever to be identifiednaturalists were studying its fossilized teeth as far back as the early 19th centuryPliopithecus is also one of the least well understood (as can be inferred from its namethis Pliocene ape actually lived in the earlier Miocene epoch). Pliopithecus was once thought to be directly ancestral to modern gibbons, and hence one of the earliest true apes, but the discovery of the even earlier Propliopithecus (before Pliopithecus) has rendered that theory moot. Further complicating matters, Pliopithecus was only one of more than two dozen similar-looking apes of Miocene Eurasia, and its far from clear how they were all related to each other. Thanks to later fossil discoveries from the 1960s, we know a lot more about Pliopithecus than the shape of its jaws and teeth. This prehistoric ape possessed very long, equally sized arms and legs, which makes it unclear whether it brachiated (i.e., swung from branch to branch), and its large eyes didnt quite face fully forward, casting doubts on the extent of its stereoscopic vision. We do know (thanks to those ubiquitous teeth) that Pliopithecus was a relatively gentle herbivore, subsisting on the leaves of its favorite trees and probably spurning the occasional insects and small animals enjoyed by its omnivorous relatives.

Monday, October 21, 2019

A Place Called Chiapas Video essays

A Place Called Chiapas Video essays This video was a very I opening piece on the situation in the Mexican territory known as Chiapas. I had heard a small amount of things about the problems previous to seeing the video and now realize that I had seen and heard was only the tip of the iceberg. Previously, I had only been told by the media that it was an independence movement by some indigenous peoples of southern Mexico. After watching the Chiapas video I now know the conditions leading to the rebellion in 1994 and how things have progressed since. I admire the makers of the video for not only showing one side of the conflict. In the video I saw the viewpoints of the Zapatista militia, the former ranchland owners, common people, government, and anti-Zapatista militia. This multi-faceted approach is, in my opinion, the most appropriate way to gain a less tainted overall view of any problem. This video really helped me to understand that the Zapatistas are not after complete atounomy, but, are after some self gover nance, more assistance from the government for health and education, and representation in the government. The only thing that I would like to see added to the video are some of the points brought up in class by the presentation given on the subject. One idea is the relation to the problems in Chiapas to the NAFTA agreement between the United States, Mexico, and Canada. Also, I would like to see some representation from the United States government on why they choose to ignore the human rights violations performed by the Mexican government but stick their noses in practically everyone elses business. Another issue I would like to see in the video is the support of the Mexican government for the anti-Zapatista militias and their refusal to address the ethnic discrimination involved in this dispute. Overall, the video was strong and I thing that you should continue to use it in the future. If there is ever a video that ...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Interaction and Communication between parents and babies thr essays

Interaction and Communication between parents and babies thr essays Touch has long been researched but we yet need to know more about it since its effects are of such magnitude. Touch is the most essential communication channel for babies because they sense, understand and experience it more than any other stimulation. Babies need to be touched because it affects their mind and bodies development, health and strengthens their bond with parents resulting in happier family life and facilitated development later in life. The benefits of this interaction are short term and long term if touch is properly administered at this early age. Physiological changes, action readiness, valenced emotions, discrete emotions, and most essential of all, love walong with safety and security, are communicated to babies when they are touched. All parents should take time to learn about touch and use this knowledge to improve their childrens quality of life. Infant massage, the practice of massaging particular areas of a babys body with gentleness and love is well established and taught by many institutions devoted to teaching parents necessary skills for child rearing. The key to successful infant massage is to remember that is it meant to be a pleasure for both parent and child. The setting should be comfortable for both parties. A warm room, pillows, blankets, hand cream to keep the parents hands soft and lots of love are important when preparing (Make Way For Baby!â„ ¢ 1999-2001). Its recommended to perform the massage at least half an hour after the baby has eaten at when he/she is calm as well as the parent (Make Way For Baby!â„ ¢ 1999-2001). The massage itself flows from head to toes with minor pressure. The pressure used should be about the same as the pressure one can put on closed eyelids without irritating the eyes (Make Way For Baby!â„ ¢ 1999-2001). Parents are encouraged to look right into the babys eyes as much as possible and allow themselves to talk freely to t...

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Atmospheric Pollution-( Global Warming) Research Proposal

Atmospheric Pollution-( Global Warming) - Research Proposal Example Time and time again, man has proved his propensity for destroying his own habitat. Globalization and industrialization and the need to compete with the rest of civilization in producing and marketing their products worldwide have pushed such basically agricultural countries as China, India and Brazil to raze down their virgin rainforests to give way to thousands of acres of industrial parks. In Brazil alone, millions of acres of Amazonian rainforests were massively cleared and burned for conversion to villages and industrial parks (King & McCarthy 2005,p.35). As a result, in 1987 alone, it was reported that 1.2 billion tons of carbon dioxide or CO2, the main component of the so-called greenhouse gases, were evaporated into the air (Rifkin 1993,p.224). Trees are known absorbers of CO2 in the air and soak up enormous amounts of CO2 so that cutting and burning them up were responsible for 20% of all CO2 emissions. In the Sahel region of Africa, natives cut off trees for use as fuelwood and allowed their herds to overgraze what's left of the bushes. As a result there was intense desertification especially in Mali, Chad and Niger as rains stopped in 1970 and temperatures reached up to 49degC causing drought and famine and deaths of animals, plants and people (DiPiazza 2007,p.13). The Nobel-Prize winning IPCC or Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reported, "Deforestation, biomass burning including fuelwood and other changes in land-use practices release CO2, CH4 and N2O into the atmosphere and together comprise about 18% of the enhanced radiation forcing" (Humphreys 1996,p.16). Since the industrial revolution in the 1880's, man has been frenetically burning coal, oil and natural gases in factories and industrial plants. Today, that industrial revolution has gone haywire as the unfettered madness to burn fossil fuels result in the release of CO2, methane or CH4, nitrous oxide or N2O and hydrofluorocarbons or CFCs into the air, creating an invisible greenhouse that pollutes the upper atmosphere, lock the heat inside and radiate this heat back to earth. Without these greenhouse gases, all the incoming sunlight normally strikes the earth's surface, causing it to emit infrared waves and most of the resultant heat simply travels unimpeded back into the void. With the presence of these greenhouse gases that envelop the earth's atmosphere, this outgoing infrared radiation is instead absorbed by the greenhouse gases,

Friday, October 18, 2019

Heritage of music. Bla Bartk Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Heritage of music. Bla Bartk - Essay Example Bela Bartok’s amazing accomplishments are in part due to the biographical elements of his life, as well as to his own creative energy. The biographical elements include the times and places of his growth and development, as well as the people who influenced him. His individual creativity can only be attributed to that unexplainable factor that accounts for artistic genius. Together these elements combined to make one of the most influential composers of the twentieth century. Bela Bartok was born in the town of Nagyszentimiklos in Hungary in 1881 (Sadie and Tyrrell 132). Being a product of Eastern Europe at this time in history meant that he would experience a lot of political and economic instability during his life. Adding to this social and political insecurity, the death of his father in 1881 caused his mother to move to what became the Ukraine and then Slovakia (Raeburn and Kendall 248). The changing borders of these Eastern European countries together with the physical a nd economic unsteadiness of his family kept Bartok’s world in flux as he was growing up. It must have seemed as though the ground continued to move beneath him. It is possible that this lack of stability could have contributed to his development as an artist, that the music inside of him was a constant that was not present in his outside world. Although the unpredictable circumstances of his childhood may have been a factor in Bartok’s artistic development, his early musical accomplishments indicate that he must have had innate talent as well. Also, his mother gave piano lessons, so he grew up listening to her teach and play. At the age of eleven he gave his first public performance, which included some original compositions. During his teen years, Bartok continued to advance in his performance level and began composing chamber music, a skill he learned by reading musical scores. At the age of eighteen, he entered the Budapest Academy of Music, where he became influenc ed by other composers and their musical styles. He studied piano with teacher who was a student of Franz Liszt, from whom he drew what Taruskin called a â€Å"self-conscious image† (373). Perhaps this meant that he was developing a style which was his and his alone. Richard Strauss’s â€Å"Also Sprach Zarathustra† inspired him to think outside the borders of conventional music, and pieces by Debussy introduced him to the tone poem (Taruskin 349). This combination led to his first major work, Kossuth, which was composed in 1903 and performed in 1904. The central figure of this symphonic poem is Lajos Kossuth, who was a hero in the Hungarian revolution. Embodying Bartok’s youthful patriotism, Kossuth gained even more popularity because of the political tension between Hungary and Austria at that time. Hungarians in the German army were demanding the same representation among the commanding ranks and wanted the Hungarian language to be spoken and recognized as equal to German (Taruskin 373). Kossuth was â€Å"a kind of narrative of the 1848-1849 revolution, in which the Austrians are represented by a grotesque distortion of Haydn’s famous imperial anthem (‘Gott, erhalte Franz den Kaiser’), and Kossuth (by extension, the Hungarians) by a melody in the noblest magyar nota style† (Taruski 374), magyar nota meaning Old Hungarian song. Also while at the Academy, at about the same time that he discovered Strauss’s and Debussy’s music and adapted the genre and style of the tone poem to his own innovative compositions, Bartok met the composer Zoltan Kodaly, with whom he became a lifelong friend. Kodaly’s influence on Bartok was to introduce him to the music of the common people. Together they travelled the countryside collecting Slovak songs from the local peasants. These activities along with the popularity of Kossuth led him to become somewhat of a national hero, and his music came to represent what was Hungarian. According to Taruskin, â€Å"‘haughty accompanying rhythms,† â€Å"dotted pairs on every downbeat,†

Natural Detoxification Using the Niacin Sauna Program Essay

Natural Detoxification Using the Niacin Sauna Program - Essay Example According to Page (1998), "They are gentle, non-invasive, and in almost every case, free of many side effects" (p. 114). Niacin - Sauna Therapy is one such program and it is this program which will be researched and analyzed in this paper. With regard to Niacin-Sauna Therapy, Haas (2004) says "A special detoxification process has been developed to help in the release of chemicals, pesticides, and pharmaceutical drugs" (p. 44). Like any good detoxification program it begins by cleansing noxious elements, rebuilding the loss of nutrients in the process and maintaining a state of good health by fostering good habits pertaining to health and fitness. This program is an intensive program which seeks to flush out the toxins located in fat. It includes a combination of techniques that have detoxifying properties such as a juice diet, exercise, sauna therapy and intake of niacin. "The idea is to cleanse hidden chemicals from fat through juice cleansing, weight loss, niacin therapy, exercise and sweats" (Haas, 2004, p. 44). This is a fledgling program but initial results are encouraging, particularly when followed by individuals who are showing the adverse effects of exposure to pesticides. This process can also be used to wea n addictive individuals from drugs (pharmaceutical as well as recreational types), alcohol and nicotine. It can also be followed in the comfort of home, provided a physician has been consulted and certain precautionary measures are taken. The Rationale and Scientific Evidence behind this Program Niacin is also known as nicotinic acid and vitamin B3. It plays a role in the release of energy from nutrients. It is found in cereals, legumes, liver, poultry, meat, nuts, whole grains, and fish. It can also be taken as a dietary supplement. Research has shown that niacin can effectively reduce cholesterol levels in the blood. High-density lipoprotein (HDL), a form of cholesterol referred to as "good cholesterol" lowers the risk of arteriosclerosis and cardiac arrest. "The researchers cite niacin as the most effective medication for raising HDL cholesterol" (Payne, 2005, p.5). Thus it helps clean out the circulatory system. Further according to Jensen (2000), niacin may be used "to flush the toxins from the organs and peripheral tissues, speed up the elimination process, and reduce production of cholesterol by the liver" (p.103). Therefore it seems fitting that niacin serves as the major component of a detoxification program. Sauna therapy is based on the principles of overheating therapy or hyperthermia. This form of healing has proved beneficial from time immemorial. According to Page (1998), "Slightly raising body temperature speeds up metabolism, inhibits the growth of harmful viruses or bacteria, and literally burns out invading organisms" (p.3). Today, sauna therapy is popular all over the world as a means of ridding the body of toxins. A sauna activates the sweat glands and induces profuse sweating. As the sweat evaporates through the skin, it takes with it potentially harmful substances, while acting as a natural coolant. Thus it may be said that such sweats are therapeutic and have healing properties. This method in addition to removing toxins via the skin uses

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Owens Precision Machinery Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6000 words

Owens Precision Machinery - Essay Example The company is a machine shop that has felt a recent surge of demand as the trend of insourcing has felt an increase after the recent recession. While the company is keeping up with the increasing demand, the company is also faces issues of dwindling cash reserves. In order to stay ahead of the competition, the company has to keep inventory in stock because of the longer lead time that suppliers require. For this, the company has to rely on outside investment which makes the President and owner consider whether he should sell off his company. The aim of this paper is to analyze the future move of the company. Owen has two options: he could either sell the company or ask his friend and investor for another loan. In order to decide which option to pursue, Owen would have to analyze his company as well as the industry in which he operates. He needs to find out if the issue of capital shortage can be corrected in the near future and what steps should he take in order to solve the problem . If he feels that the company has no future, then the best course of action would be to sell off the company. In order to recommend the best course of action for Owen Precision Machining, the first part studied business models that would help in analyzing the situation at hand. The models that have been used in the paper are: SWOT Analysis, Risk Reward Analysis, Just in Time Strategy, Vendor Managed Inventory, and Business Process Reengineering. SWOT helped in understanding the current standing of the company both internally as well as externally. The Risk Reward Analysis helped in evaluating the potential rewards in comparison with the risks for the options available for Christopher Owen. Since the company was facing the biggest hurdle in managing its inventory, two strategies that were discussed are Just in Time Strategy and Vendor Managed Inventory. Lastly Business Process Reengineering was used to help guide the organization on how to attain the required changes. SWOT Analysis of the company showed that the company is in a favorable position both internally as well as externally. However, the company has to work on its threats in order to bring the company into a more favorable position. The risk reward analysis revealed that the company is in the growing stages where the risks and rewards are both high. In this position, the company has to manage its operations in such a manner that it should be able to minimize the risk and thus entire the mature stage. Also the best option for OPM under the risk reward analysis is to retain the company but at the same time revise its operational strategy. The biggest issue that OPM is facing in this regard is managing its inventory so that cash is available for the company. For this, the analysis suggests using a combination of Just in Time Strategy and Vendor Managed Inventory. In order to bring about the necessary changes, the Business Process Reengineering model will be followed. Once the company was analyzed throug h the above mentioned models, a set of recommendations were developed for the company. It was recommended that Owen not sell the company but rather retain ownership of the company. The company should ask Benson for a bigger loan in order to implement VMI and JIT Strategy. Chapter One Owen’s Precision Machining is a small machine shop that operates with a total of 15 employees and under the leadership of the President and second generation owner, Christopher Owen. The company develops machine parts for robot prototypes and laboratory automation equipment. Before the economic crisis that hit the world in 2007, more and more companies were outsourcing their manufacturing to emerging countries around the world and chief among them was China. This trend of outsourcing had resulted in a decline

Globalization topic research paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Globalization topic - Research Paper Example Hence, globalization has just made it simple. It is the change of thinking of the locals to open up their borders with a wider outlook of interconnections and interdependence to the rest of the world. (Baylis, Smith and Owens, 2013) They can exchange their capital goods at will while on the other hand; movement of labor is not prohibited. The measurements nonetheless, if not controlled can hurt the less developed economies. Thus, these seem not to bother the two countries as their economies are at par and have nothing to lose but just to maintain their superiority. The census from both countries shows that trade is the significant mutual benefits that the two countries enjoy. In fact, approximately 21% of the United States imports are from China making them the biggest trade partner in the early 21st century. A survey done by Yingyi, Qingguo,Chong’en, and Jisi, in (2014),in China on international politics and economy shows that both nations have enormous amount of capital goods and will be willing to exchange at their free will. China, on the other hand, has its primary essential from America that comprise of about 9% of their total imports, such is indeed a mutual relationship between the two countries. Baylis, Smith, and Owens, (2013) an educational study indicates that these ties will be long term benefits and is unlikely to end soon. It observes China has the largest population in the world providing the ready market for goods and services for the America economy. The population in China can help in the labor production that is requ ired in the America. Hence, Chinese are more than willing to partner the Americans since it provides for job destination to its millions of citizens reducing unemployment. Thus, the interdependence is just but the beginning of what mutual happenings are bound to happen between the two world economic giants. However, the interdependence between the

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Owens Precision Machinery Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6000 words

Owens Precision Machinery - Essay Example The company is a machine shop that has felt a recent surge of demand as the trend of insourcing has felt an increase after the recent recession. While the company is keeping up with the increasing demand, the company is also faces issues of dwindling cash reserves. In order to stay ahead of the competition, the company has to keep inventory in stock because of the longer lead time that suppliers require. For this, the company has to rely on outside investment which makes the President and owner consider whether he should sell off his company. The aim of this paper is to analyze the future move of the company. Owen has two options: he could either sell the company or ask his friend and investor for another loan. In order to decide which option to pursue, Owen would have to analyze his company as well as the industry in which he operates. He needs to find out if the issue of capital shortage can be corrected in the near future and what steps should he take in order to solve the problem . If he feels that the company has no future, then the best course of action would be to sell off the company. In order to recommend the best course of action for Owen Precision Machining, the first part studied business models that would help in analyzing the situation at hand. The models that have been used in the paper are: SWOT Analysis, Risk Reward Analysis, Just in Time Strategy, Vendor Managed Inventory, and Business Process Reengineering. SWOT helped in understanding the current standing of the company both internally as well as externally. The Risk Reward Analysis helped in evaluating the potential rewards in comparison with the risks for the options available for Christopher Owen. Since the company was facing the biggest hurdle in managing its inventory, two strategies that were discussed are Just in Time Strategy and Vendor Managed Inventory. Lastly Business Process Reengineering was used to help guide the organization on how to attain the required changes. SWOT Analysis of the company showed that the company is in a favorable position both internally as well as externally. However, the company has to work on its threats in order to bring the company into a more favorable position. The risk reward analysis revealed that the company is in the growing stages where the risks and rewards are both high. In this position, the company has to manage its operations in such a manner that it should be able to minimize the risk and thus entire the mature stage. Also the best option for OPM under the risk reward analysis is to retain the company but at the same time revise its operational strategy. The biggest issue that OPM is facing in this regard is managing its inventory so that cash is available for the company. For this, the analysis suggests using a combination of Just in Time Strategy and Vendor Managed Inventory. In order to bring about the necessary changes, the Business Process Reengineering model will be followed. Once the company was analyzed throug h the above mentioned models, a set of recommendations were developed for the company. It was recommended that Owen not sell the company but rather retain ownership of the company. The company should ask Benson for a bigger loan in order to implement VMI and JIT Strategy. Chapter One Owen’s Precision Machining is a small machine shop that operates with a total of 15 employees and under the leadership of the President and second generation owner, Christopher Owen. The company develops machine parts for robot prototypes and laboratory automation equipment. Before the economic crisis that hit the world in 2007, more and more companies were outsourcing their manufacturing to emerging countries around the world and chief among them was China. This trend of outsourcing had resulted in a decline

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Annotated Bibliography Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 6

Annotated Bibliography Example To this end, the author contends that legal sanctions that have been described have not been deterent enough to wage offenders from it. Unlike Rooy (2004) who sees civil liability as the best offence to dishonor of checks, Muntingh prefers a criminal liability. Rooy (2004) has been a practicing international banker for several years. He also doubles as a criminologist. In writing this article therefore, he reviewed some of the international approaches that have been put in place to reduce various crimes associated with financial fraud. In the opinion of the author, a major breakthrough came for international trade when documentary credits were introduced. Unlike Muntingh (2007), Rooy sees the civil liability that has been associated with various forms of trade frauds including the dishonor of checks as highly suitable for the prescribed offences. The author has been a practicing security expert for several years and have had several approved articles published in international journals including the present one. In the current article, the author embraces the documentary credit as a breakthrough for ensuring security with international payment. The reason is that it limits the rate at which traders would have to carry physical cash in the transaction of trade. But in order that the advantages of documentary credit be enjoyed to the maximum, the author, unlike Rooy (2004) assets that there should be the introduction of criminal liabilities all across regions that see checks as Bills of Exchange. Muntingh, J. A. (2007). The Fraud Exception in the Context of Documentary Credits: A Comparative Study of the Remedies in Various Jurisdictions. LL.M dissertation, Journal de Stellenbosch University, ProQuest, 4 (3), 43 -

Human factors in the Space industry Essay Example for Free

Human factors in the Space industry Essay Abstract The world is in transition from Information Age to Space Age. This can be assumed by observing trends particularly those initiated by developed countries such as the US, Russia, China, Japan and the members of the European Union. The robots are programmed to be more precise in its actions compared to humans but with the humans capability to judge and make decisions according to unexpected circumstances, the latter are still considered a better option for space explorations. This necessitates the study for Human Factors. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the Human Factors that are associated with the Space Industry. such knowledge would give the reader an idea on the Human limitations that must be considered and which could be very critical in space explorations. Without proper consideration, space explorations would be unsuccessful and the transition to Space Age would never ascend from the state of being imaginary, to reality. Consideration of Human Factors Towards the Space Age Humanity is now in the so-called Information age when time is fast-paced and access to information can be as fast, easy and unlimited as the trend for telecommunication and global integration continue to show prospects of expansion. The prospects of expansion, however, is not limited to the â€Å"global†. Current research shows that the trend is gradually opening its way to the rudiments of transition from the Information age to the Space age. Developed countries such as the US, Russia, Japan, China, India, the members of the EU and its industries are starting to involve themselves with the space and satellite industry, spending significant amounts of their budgets to further research, interest and opportunities for the said industry (Partners in Space, 2005). According to the Sacknoff in the 2005 Report on the State of the Space Industry by the International Space Business Council, there had been a total of $103 billion turnover from commercial and government services and programs in 2004. This turnover is expected to increase to at least $158 billion in 2010. Meanwhile, the US Defense has increased its spending for Space-related investments from $15 billion in 2000 to $22 billion in 2005. It is expected to further increase to at least $28 billion in 2010. There has also been a continuous increase in the market for satellite service particularly that of GPS positioning and tracking which could lead to the development of space tourism. According to NASDAQ, the space industry is currently one of the most innovative growth sectors in the world today (Sacknoff, 2005). At present, the US President, George W. Bush has made a proclamation about his â€Å"New Space† vision that could be a challenging turning point for the space industry. The aim of this vision is to be able to return to the moon by the end of the decade and to be able to fly to Mars immediately in the following decade (President Bush Announces New Vision for Space Exploration Program, 2004). Robots vs. Humans However, in order to become successful in such endeavors, the departments in charge of the development must recognize and consider certain factors that are critical to the future of the industry. There is a huge debate on whether there is a need to send humans in space, when there would always be robots to take their place. Those for robots argue that it would limit the risks of â€Å"needless human sacrifices† in case unexpected circumstances arise. However, the NASA argues that while in fact, robots are very useful in space explorations and gathering research data, the needed knowledge about space would never be near complete without human’s ingenuity and physical experience (The Human Advantage, 2003). Applied to the current objective of the â€Å"New Space† vision as well as the objectives of the previous explorations, there are still a lot of things that even robots, and only humans, with their minds, can do. Robots, for example cannot deal with unexpected things while humans can think of creative ways to solve unexpected problems such as equipment breakdown (The Human Advantage, 2003). Installations, upgrades and detailed work in space can only be done with the finesse of human operators. While it can be tested by robots, prospects such as possible life in other planets can only be guaranteed by human exploration.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Differences Between Male and Female Gang Members

Differences Between Male and Female Gang Members Eric Diehlmann   Gangs are not a new phenomenon in American society. As early as the late 1700 gangs emerged on the East Coast because of immigration and poverty (Howell Moore 2010). These early gangs helped people to feed their families and build a sense of belonging in a new country. Nowadays not much has changed individuals still join gangs to make money and feel like they belong. These gangs have kept crime alive in the cities where they exist and make it hard for law enforcement to keep crime rates low. In this paper, we will delve into the history of gangs, the activities of the gangs, and the differences between male and female gang members when it comes to membership and the victimization they experience in a gang. In the late 18th century the United States was established as an independent country and cities in the first states were experiencing the beginnings of gangs. These gangs were not seasoned criminals but youth fighting over local territory. In the 1820s organized gangs started to emerge after large scale immigration to the United States and the subsequent poverty and overcrowding that followed. Most of these gangs were initially white (Irish, Italian, German, etc.) but as Latinos and Blacks started to move to the cities in the 1950s the gangs became more racially diverse. The second period of gang growth also saw in increase in Poles, Italians and Jews in the cities which strengthened the gangs of the corresponding ethnicities. By the 1950s youth gangs have disappeared and a migration of Blacks and Latinos came into the city which sparked interracial tensions. White gangs violently resisted racial integration which led Black and Latino gangs to form as protection groups. Some modern-d ay gangs have their roots in penitentiaries where they were formed for protection from other inmates. In the Midwest gangs began similarly to the east where most gangs were white. Most notably Chicago which saw racial tensions between the white, black, and Latino gangs in the 1950s. Due to these tensions the proliferation of Latino and Black gangs occurred (Diamond 2005). As for gangs in the West the first were Latino due to the high Mexican population there. Like the East the first gangs were formed by groups of boys. As time passed these groups of boys became seasoned criminals recruiting others to join for protection and family. The cultural and physical marginalization of the Latino population helped to strengthen the developing gangs in the West where the Latino population was the majority (Howell Moore 2010). The difference between Latino gangs in the west compared to the Latino gangs in the East is that is gangs in the East arose from social disorganization stemming from the influx of immigrants coming through Ellis Island, whereas in the West the gangs arose from ethnic history and an alienation of the Latino culture. The major gangs that we take into consideration are MS 13, Trinitarios, The Aryan Brotherhood, The Bloods, and the Crips. MS-13 is a Latin street gang that has its origins in the poor neighborhoods of Los Angeles in the 1980s and in El Salvador. They span from Central America through Mexico and the United States all the way up to Canada. Their strongest presence is in Washington DC, California, and New York (Adams Pizarro). They originated in Southern California to protect each other from the violence caused by the Mexican Mafia. After time, they formed an alliance with the Mexican Mafia in 1993 which made them an official Southern California gang. To join the gang you have to be of Latin decent and go through an initiation process which involves a thirteen second beating from three older members or if you are female you have the option to be sexed in by having sex with thirteen members of the gang. Each prospective member is also required to do a trial period where they participate in gang activities. MS-13 is most notably known for their weapon of choice a machete, a number of violent acts committed by the gang are done with a machete. MS-13 is split up into cliques that vary in their own structure with larger cliques having a more military style hierarchy and smaller ones having designated leaders called shot callers. All gang members are required to follow the thirteen rules of conduct which include always obeying a superior member order to not saying mierda due the fact that thats what the rival gang the Eighteenth Street Gang calls them. In addition to the thirteen rules they must bring in profit, prove their toughness, and kill on command. Another famous Latin gang are the Trinitarios they were formed in 1989 by inmates in the Rikers Island Correction Facility and was composed of mostly Dominican inmates who sought protection. When the members were released they set up shop in the Washington Heights area of New York City and they are considered one of the fastest growing gangs on the Northeast. The requirements to be in the Trinitarios are that you must be of Dominican decent or affiliation as well as killing somebody or getting stabbed. The leaders from each regional chapter meet up once a year and other than that they all operate independently there are two main leaders but their identities are unknown. They have no alliances with other Latin gangs declare themselves rivals of those gangs. The Aryan Brotherhood is a prison gang that operates both in and out of prison. The gang formed in 1964 in San Quentin prison as a response to newly desegregated prisons, the founders were Irish bikers who sought protection in prison. The requirement to join the Brotherhood is that they must kill another person in a eye drawing fashion or kill a person of another race. Although they dont have as many members compared to other prison gangs the Aryan Brotherhood makes up for it in pure violence and disregard for authority. For example, a member of the Aryan Brotherhood killing a shot caller of a rival gang in the middle of a crowded prison yard with no concern of the repercussions. The Aryan Brotherhood have certain core values like white supremacy and adorn themselves in Nazi symbols like the swastika and SS patches or tattoos, this gang is also known to work with other gangs of varyi ng races which goes to show that making money comes before their racism. The Bloods arose in the early 1970s in response to the Crips gang becoming a powerful gang terrorizing neighborhoods in Los Angeles. There were other African American that arose in response to the Crips and over time these red gangs banded together to form the Bloods. Later on in the 1970s the Bloods and Crips began to divide up into neighborhoods in the Los Angeles area fervently protecting their territory. As time passed and their membership grew the Bloods are spread throughout the country both in states and their respective prison population. The requirements to be in the Bloods are that you must be African American, as well as survive a beat in by elder members of the gang and commit a crime or murder a member of a rival gang. The Crips arose in the late 1960s on high school campuses throughout to Los Angeles area. These groups were later organized into subsets that had their own leaders and hierarchies. T he initiation process for being a Crip is essentially the same for being a Blood, you must get beat in and kill a rival gang member or commit another crime. Now that we have a good background on the history of gangs and the different groups we will go over the types of crimes these gangs commit. The crimes of these gangs are all similar in a sense they are known for drug trafficking, murder, and human trafficking. If we look deeper we can see what makes each gangs crimes unique to them. To start off the MS-13 more specifically deals in drug distribution, murder, rape, prostitution, robbery, home invasions, immigration offenses, kidnapping, carjacking, and vandalism. All the following crimes are usually carried out as violently as possible where violence is necessary. A crime that sets them apart from the other gangs are immigration offenses, since MS-13 is a gang that requires El Salvadorian heritage many of the members go through Mexico to the U.S. where other gang members can get them into the U.S. illegally. The Trinitarios commit similar crimes to MS-13 except for immigration offenses. Since this is originally a prison gang a decent amount of the offenses may happen in penitentiaries. The Aryan Brotherhood commits crimes like the MS-13 and Trinitarios with the exception of racketeering, arms trafficking, inmate prostitution and some dog fighting. They are known specifically for distributing crystal methamphetamine. For the most part crimes happen in the prison system although they also have members that are not incarcerated that commit crimes and smuggle in money into the prison to give to other members. The Brotherhood also make themselves available as hitmen for hire for the right price. The Brotherhood mostly focuses on seriously organized crime activities which sets them apart from most gangs where the thing that they are about most is territory and not making money. The Bloods and Crips Gang activities are like the MS-13 and Trinitarios. Both gangs made large amounts of money during the crack-cocaine epidemic in Los Angeles and routinely rob and murder innocent people or rival gang members. When most people think of a gang member they often think of male members but there are many female gang members as well. Although they only account for usually 11% of gang member ship according to a study conducted by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Since females in gangs are a small minority of the total gang membership we will look at what gangs females are predominantly in. Female gang members can be separated into 3 types, mixed membership gangs where members can be male or female, auxiliary gangs, where a group of females works with a male dominated gang and finally female only gangs. Per the study Gender Dynamics in Youth Gangs: A Comparison of Males and Females Accounts by Jody Miller and Rod K. Brunson they found that females most likely found themselves associated with mixed gangs or auxiliary gangs. When a female is in a gang they are found to assume one of two roles the tomboy or the sex object. The tomboy role is like the male members role in th e gang but is not usually accepted due to the male members viewing it as outside of the normal female behavior. The sex object role is obvious, the male members use a female for sexual purposes as well as using them to entrap male rival gang members and conceal weapons or drugs. In both roles, the females wanted to have the respect of their male peers. There were interesting observances of how a female presence would deter violent acts even in all male gangs. One of the all-male gang members explains Girls keep people from doin things and he goes on to tell a story about how a girl that he used to talk to hid his gun from him an attempt to stop him from getting vengeance on a rival gang member that shot his partner. Miller and Brunson g on to summarize this by stating Young womens presence gave these young men an excuse for avoiding violence, even though they depicted girls as only good for sex.. When looking at the activities that girls in gangs commit one member explains that his fellow member Tia mostly sold drugs and partied with the other members but did not participate in activities that included violence like drive bys and other confrontations with rival gangs. If a girl was involved on a violent act it was fighting another rival female member. When all the members were asked how they protected other members most of the subjects responded that guns were the primary source of protection. It was noted that girls just said guns while boys listed the types of firearms given to the members. A major difference between boys and girls when it came to weapons was that when the girls were asked what kind of weapons girls carried on them 70 percent stated they carried knives or similar instruments while 26 percent carried guns. As for inter-gang relationships between boys and girls it seems that in mixed gangs members for the most part had a sexual relationship with the other opposite sex members since dating can cause unwanted drama and fighting within the gang. As for all male gangs, they will have similar relationships with girls that hang out with the gang where they are only viewed as sex objects. The most apparent example of this sexual exploitation is seen when the initiation process of sexing in is used on new female recruits. If a female member is sexed in usually they do not receive any respect within the gang and are only viewed as sex objects. It was noted that if a female did associate with a mixed gender gang instead of a all-male gang they were afforded protect ion and some status within the gang. There are differences between how female and male members are attacked by other rival gangs. Male and female members both acknowledged that it is easier for males to be targeted by rivals than females mostly because females are allowed to wear whatever colors they want and are not assumed to be in a gang. There was a specific danger for female gang members, being kidnapped and sexually assaulted or beaten by rival gang members to make a point. For the most part females did not agree that they experienced the same amount of dangers that males face being in a gang. It is noted that both male and females agreed that once a violent situation came around the females are not included or they leave the scene. From the interviews with the gang members on their views on gender specific victimization all accounts had the idea that boys were more likely to experience lethal violence and girls were more likely to experience sexual violence. In summary, we can see that gangs have a rich culture in the United States dating back to when the first immigrants settled here. Although the gangs vary by ethnicity it seems that people join gangs for protection, to have some semblance of a family, or to make a living. The crimes of these gangs can vary but all of them commit violent crimes and sell drugs other illegal substances. As far as gender is concerned it is shown that females make up a small amount of membership in gangs and they usually do not participate in violent life threatening acts but they help distribute drugs and lure rival gang members. Just because female gang members arent involved in violent crimes does not mean that that are at less of a risk of danger. Females are at risk of being kidnapped and sexually or physically assaulted by rival gang members to make a point whereas male gang members are at risk of life threatening altercations with rival gang members. Works Cited: Adams, Jennifer J., and Jesenia M. Pizarro.MS-13 Gang Profile(2009): n. pag.MS-13 Gang Profile. Journal of Gang Research, Summer 2009. Web. 1 Mar. 2017. Aryan Brotherhood.Aryan Brotherhood. Southern Poverty Law Center, n.d. Web. 01 Mar. 2011 Diamond, Andrew J. Gangs.Gangs. Chicago Historical Society, 2005. Web. 01 Mar. 2017. Dun, J. (n.d.). Los Angeles Crips and Bloods: Past and Present. Retrieved March 02, 2017, from Howell, James C., and John P. Moore. The History of Street Gangs in the United States: Their Origins and Transformations.History of Street Gangs in The United States(2010): n. pag.History of Street Gangs in The United States. U.S. Department of Justice, May 2010. Web. 1 Mar. 2017. Miller, Jody, and Rod K. Brunson. Gender Dynamics in Youth Gangs: A Comparison of Males and Females Accounts.Justice Quarterly17.3 (2000): 419-48. Web. Olmstead, Scott.Organization Data Sheet: Los Trinitarios Author: Scott Olmstead Review: Phil Williams A. When the Organization Was Formed + Brief History(n.d.): n. pag.Los Trinitarios. Pittsburgh University, May 2012. Web. 1 Mar. 2017. Survey Results: Gang Member Demographics, Sex.Survey Results: Gang Member Demographics, Sex. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1996. Web. 13 Mar. 2017.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Characters of For Whom the Southern Belle Tolls Essay -- For Whom

The Characters of For Whom the Southern Belle Tolls  Ã‚     Ã‚   For Whom the Southern Belle Tolls is Christopher Durang's hilarious 1994 parody of The Glass Menagerie, a 1945 play by Tennessee Williams. In both plays, the main characters must deal with several serious problems, including isolation, fear of the outside world, and the need for understanding. Whereas the characters in The Glass Menagerie handle their problems in a relatively serious manner, those in For Whom the Southern Belle Tolls take a more farcical approach. For Whom the Southern Belle Tolls offers an alternate view of the situations in The Glass Menagerie, and it comments on how the American society has changed since the 1940s. Durang's parody accomplishes its humor by developing extreme versions of the characters in The Glass Menagerie through magnification of their faults and idiosyncrasies: Laura's shyness toward the world, Amanda's lack of understanding for her children, Tom's anger with his family, and Jim's partial deafness (however minor in Williams' play). It is more difficult to sympathize with Lawrence in For Whom the Southern Belle Tolls than with Laura in The Glass Menagerie because he is so much more irritating and pathetic than his female counterpart. Laura is a young woman who suffers from extreme shyness and self-consciousness because she has a slightly malformed leg and needs to wear a leg brace; consequently, she is afraid to talk to new people and enter new situations. Laura's psychological problems are amplified in Lawrence, who fakes several ailments, including asthma, eczema, and a crippled leg. He never leaves the safety of his house, and his only friends are his glass swizzle sticks, which he gives such names as "Q-tip" (1942), "Ther... ...children's; in addition, Durang adds two homosexual characters: Tom and Ginny. This is evidence that For Whom the Belle Tolls does more than just provide a humorous approach to the situations in The Glass Menagerie: it shows how the American society and family have changed since Williams wrote his play. According to Durang, people have become more open with their personal feelings and sexuality, but they have also become more self-centered. Works Cited Durang, Christopher. For Whom the Southern Belle Tolls. Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Eds. Ann Charters and Samuel Charters. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997. 1937-1948. Williams, Tennessee. "The Glass Menagerie." Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Eds. Ann Charters and Samuel Charters. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997. 1704-1750.      

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Coastal Restoration in Louisiana Essay -- Environmental Management

Geologically speaking, Louisiana is a very young state. Environmentally speaking, Louisiana is a very fragile state. Louisiana has always been dependent upon the nutrient rich deposits from the Mississippi River to build up the land. Centuries ago the Mississippi River periodically changed its course, building up Louisiana one delta at a time. The erosional forces of the Gulf of Mexico and annual hurricanes depleted Louisiana’s coastline, but the mighty Mississippi River would replenish the land losses. Such is the relationship that forces of nature have with one another. Place mankind in the mix, and the relationship becomes stressed and dysfunctional. The present day Louisiana coastline is a mere shadow of its former self. Let’s look at how Louisiana came to its current demise and what is being done to rectify the situation. Historical Data As sea level rose and fell over Louisiana in previous centuries, the Mississippi River carried large loads of sediment to the Gulf Coastal area from the core of the North American continent and deposited it on the rim of the Gulf of Mexico. Prior to the twentieth century, 5 million acres of land were compliments of the large influxes of mud from the river’s mammoth basin, extending from Montana to New York State. Organic matter from highly productive marine waters has been deeply buried under the whole state and far offshore, turning into petroleum. During other dry periods, large beds of salt were laid down through evaporation. Human engineering has temporarily tamed the river, most of the time, preventing it from dumping its valuable land building sediment all over the place. As a result, coastal Louisiana is sinking out of sight, starved of fresh material. The Mississippi Delta was... ... University of New Orleans. "That's not even possible. The goal is to restore healthy natural processes, then live with what you get." (Bourne) Sounds like a good attitude to this happy Cajun. Works Cited Alden, Andrew. Guide. 4 December 2010 . Bourne, Joel K. National Geographic Society -Environment-The Big Uneasy. 4 December 2010 . State of LA, Gov. Bobby Jindal. Coastal Protection and Restoration. 4 December 2010 . Tibbetts, John. "Environmental Health Perspectives." January 2006. Louisiana-A lesson in Nature Appreciation Vol. 114, Number 1. 4 December 2010 .

Friday, October 11, 2019

Multi-Modal Transport System Effects on Selection of Global Supply

UNIVERSITY OF GLAMORGAN BUSSINESS SCHOOL| Globalization of Logistics and Supply Chain: Selection Of Global Supplier Over Local Impacts On Sustainability of Supply Chain| Key words : Sustainable Supply Chain, Multi- modal/Intra-modal Transport, Transport modes, Logistics, Operations, Sustainability, Triple bottom line| | Aqeel Iqbal| 15-Apr-13|This paper is conceptualizing on combination of transport modes organisation use to maintain sustainability in their supply chain by keeping the carbon foot print to minimum, this paper utilizes desk research to evaluate the impact of this approach on the organisations who prefer global suppliers over local evaluating the trade-offs these organisations need to make in order to maintain an equilibrium of sustainability in their supply chain concluding on the fact that dependent on an organisational willingness to be environmentally sustainable future most practices don’t need a choice of cost over environment but some need sacrifice of at least one to maintain sustainability. | Introduction This research paper is aimed to critically evaluate and answer the research question of: how selection of global over local suppliers affects organisation’s sustainable supply chain strategy while considering the impact of ‘‘multi-modal’/‘intramodal’ choice’ and what trade-offs does these organisations need do in order to achieve this?To answer this research question it is essential to address two wide areas in business literature, gaining an understand of what these areas actually mean to an organisational operational strategy: first being identification of different intramodal/multimodal transport choice used in local and global supply chains; whereas the second to critically evaluate why priority is given by different organisations to select global suppliers over local, while achieving reasoning from prospective of different Industries and organisations within those industries for t he trades-off they are willing to do in order to implement selected means in to practice, while maintaining the sustainability of their supply chain. This paper divided into four nterlinked parts will use desk search to grasp understanding on wide topics of present transportation modes, multi-modal/intramodal transportation system, and sustainability of supply chain (focusing on logistics and operation function) and Impacts of selecting global supply chain; dividing each part by sub-research questions asked to the reader at end of each part; While concluding the paper on the notion that selection of the mode depends on trade-offs an organisations is willing to make between being ecological sustainable to cost and service. Transportation modes at present In the past decades the transportation system has been regarded as a separate function and an additional cost to the organisations supply chain (Huge-Brodin, 2013); which has also often been likened with the objective of cost minimis ation rather than a value adding factor (Cunningham, 1982).However, this long-established concept has been critiqued to be a value added activity in the supply chain from literature of twenty first century (E. Bo and Hammervoll, 2010; Freight best practice, 2013; Huge-Brodin, 2013) based on the emerging demand for advanced logistics services and the globalization trends, demand in cutting of lead period, short product life cycles, and increased technology use and outsourcing trends (Anthony D. Ross, 2012). This notion has lead organisations consider flexible and effective freight flow which can match and fulfil organisation needs dependent on their market and environment (Cunningham, 1982; Murphy and Farris, 1993; Huge-Brodin, 2013).In order to understand how to use the right transportation mode freight movement it is eminent to know different transportation methods used by organisations at present and critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each of them (see Appendi x A & B). (Appendix A&B) does not show one of the major transport mode pipeline mainly because of its use in movement of specific kind of freight like oil and gas thus not firmly a modal choice it has a high initial cost of setup but is full reliable cost effective and environment friendly (CEFIC, 2011; Freight best practice, 2013). There are four major categories of freight transport used presently: inland water and sea, air, pipeline, and land.Whereas most literatures in the past categorised land into sub modes in order to evaluate the effectiveness of them as Road and Rail (Murphy and Farris, 1993; Freight best practice, 2013); thus for the purpose of this paper five inclusive the sub categories will be used. Maria Feo-Valero and her colleagues (Feo-valero, Menendez and hidalgo, 2011) in a review to bibliography has highlighted Freight Value Of Time (FVOT) as a scale for the methods of transport mode selection; based on the rate of substitution between travel cost and time called value of time (VOT) as different modes vary majorly in consciences of amount they carry in given time and the cost to the organisation (Feo-valero, Menendez and hidalgo, 2011) .As different organisations in the same industries have different priories of transport mainly dependent on their locations, sustainability, market share, quantity, size and weight of inventories (Carter and Rogers, 2008; Meixell and Mario, 2008) as an example retail industry consists a combination of deep-sea mode which commute inventories internationally (may contain inventories for various competitors within the same region in a container (Fawcett and Mangan, 2002; Pettit, Liu and Beresford, 2011)) then through either rail or road depended on inventory size, weight, type and location of main warehouse and sustainable practice of the organisation is selected from which may be distributed via road transport either to depot or directly to the retail store (Wu and Dunn, 1995; Huge-Brodin, 2013). The FVOT value has been an important addition to the logistics planning following the concept of cost reduction with less recognition over time but similar frameworks illustrate results which have been used to optimize time and cost of transportation of freight (Murphy and Farris, 1993; Carter and Rogers, 2008).Which lead managers and academics to a conclusion that combination of more than one mode is mostly profitable to organisation (Murphy and Farris, 1993) but depended on type of freight and relative distance but is it that simple in present world? Multimodal/ Intermodal Transportation System Multimodal and intermodal being the two words used in literature with synonymous meaning of: ‘usage of one or more than one mode of transport’ innocently interoperated occasionally. Thus it is important to address this for the purpose of this paper: intra-model transport with only one significant difference to multimodal is that the freight being transported are not handled on every occasion when the mode of transport is changed (Freight best practice, 2013) in opposition to multi-modal where freight are andled each time for example in case of container caring automobile that arrive at deep sea port is opened and cars remove from the container are loaded on a auto-transport trailer to carry by the trailer to showroom (Worthington and Britton, 2006). For the purpose of this paper multi-modal will be used to demonstrate more than one of transport. Multi-modal transportations have answered to the cost reduction of the orthodox literature on reduction of cost and time freight transport: as discussed earlier in the retail example for the ship carrying inventories of different competitors in a shared container reducing cost by sharing of container, and dependent on the agile approach of any of these competitor time frame of getting inventors from deep sea port to stores can be reduced by using road mode rather than rail (Logistcs Cluster, 2011).As the field of transportation evolved â€Å"Deregulation of the rail and trucking industries, implementation of innovative manufacturing strategies such as Just in Time (JIT),increased emphasis on quality management† (Meixell and Mario, 2008) and stakeholder (R. E. Freeman, 1984) consideration have all contributed to cause complexity in transportation selection (Murphy and Farris, 1993) developing the traditional view of just selecting the mode and type of carrier (Meixell and Mario, 2008). In present time logistics/operation manages are bound to understand the Industries challenges faced by the organisation as explained by (Meixell and Mario, 2008) in their paper comparing â€Å"Transportation capacity shortage, and International growth, Economies of scale and scope, Security concerns, Environmental and energy used†.As research carried by (Pettit, Liu and Beresford, 2011) on the extraction and transportation of iron ore from Australia to China utilizing multimodal transportation relied on more co nvectional mode of transport Deeps Sea for country to country transportation but other than that saw were some limitations imposed on multimodal transport options for bulk cargoes. As Iron ore flows are typically as â€Å"high volume – high weight – low value and transhipment is time consuming, energy intensive and expensive† thus minimising the modes of transportation and limiting â€Å"large number of transhipment points†. As the research question point out need to investigate the sustainable options to transport the next parts of the essay will achieve an understanding: Is global multi-modal transportation a sustainable option for an organisations supply chain and what trade-offs are organisations willing to make in order to implement this modal in their supply chain?In order to answer this it is critical to first grasp an understanding of what sustainable supply chain means to an organisation? Sustainability of Supply Chain Shareholder theory stating the organisations primary focus being increasing shareholders wealth (Friedman, 1970) has overly been critiqued by the stakeholder theory over the topic of ill consideration of environmental and social sustainability (R. E. Freeman, 1984; Jensen, 2002; Murphy, 2012). Sustainability as defined by (Worthington and Britton, 2006: 510) â€Å"An approach to economic growth and development which takes account of the social and environmental consequences† also referred to as the triple bottom line approach (Elkington, 1994; Carter and Rogers, 2008; Seuring and Muller, 2008).Supply chains by definition necessitate organisations to work collectively with the purpose of adding value to the customer by physical movement of goods. In present world combination of different supply chains have come together to form a supply web (Poter. M. E, 1985,1996; Handfield and Nichols, 2002). As the research question only relates with the impact of the multi-modal choice impact on the supply chain thu s functions supporting function from Poter’s value chain model are side lined and emphases is given on the inbound/outbound logistics and operations (Poter. M. E, 1985,1996) value chain model (explaining supply chain as a combination of value adding activates within an organisational structure).Inbound/Outbound logistics being one of the most important function of the supply chain (Carter and Rogers, 2008) has been linked to sustainability because of inclusion of one the most costly and environmentally harmful sub-function (transport function) in it (Huge-Brodin, 2013) as according to (CEFIC, 2011) report Transport including freight accounts for 20% of all EU’s green house gas emissions which was projected to raise to 30% by 2020 if precautions are not taken. Sustainability a wide topic in itself has been of great interest to all the stakeholders in present time especially to customers, governments and non-Governmental organisations (NGOs); Pressurising organisations t o operate in environmental and social friendly manner and demanding transparency from organisation supply chains (Carter and Rogers, 2008; CEFIC, 2011; Freight best practice, 2013). This transparency majorly driven y corporate reporting, â€Å"Interoperable software and globalization of supply chains† making it hard and risky for an organisation to do corporate unethical activities (Carter and Rogers, 2008)as: in case logistics external stakeholders are mainly interested in the economical and the environmental impact on sustainability for example raised awareness in sustainability of environment presently as consumers looking at carbon foot print (total amount of carbon emission done in to getting the product to the end user (Freight best practice, 2013))before purchase of a product (Anthony D. Ross, 2012); Carbon footprint is one of most important variable, while calculating environmental sustainability (Anthony D. Ross, 2012; Carter and Rogers, 2008; Feo-valero, Menendez an d hidalgo, 2011).As all three Economical, social and Environmental impacts are considered while making a mode selection, (Carter and Rogers, 2008) drew a wider picture of implications in the their version of triple bottom line(3BL) (see Appendix C)by including the risk management, organisational culture, transparency and organisational strategy as the factors basing the triple bottom line of an organisation. Whereas placing a question mark at being good which relates the social and environmental factors of 3BL following the viewpoint of some scholars like (Walley and Whitehead, 1994) stating â€Å"environmental and social initiatives are costly undertakings† (Carter and Rogers, 2008).In contrast to statement by (Walley and Whitehead, 1994) some logistics and operations functions fall in the category of being sustainable in all forms as resulted in a study done in 1980 on 45 firms in Denmark; results found suggested 20 out of 45 to be cost saving options (Dielman and de Hoo, 1 993) for example: efficient routing of transport, reducing packaging, improving operational order in warehouses and having fuel efficient transportation, (Carter and Rogers, 2008) and reverse logistics for some Industries as the fabricated metal products industry and electric/electronic products industry used as topic of research by (Talbot, Lefebvre and Lefebvre, 2007).According to (Wagner, 2005) In practice, organisation try hard to achieve a win-win situation when considering the economic and the environmental aspect; but when it comes to trade-offs based on the analysis of all there dimension (Seuring and Muller, 2008) have rated the economic dimension of being the most important from the view of the organisation explaining the notion that â€Å"without economic success, there would be no supply chains† whereas trade-offs between environmental and social dimension dictions have not been clear (Wagner, 2005). This now leads to the question of: Are global multi-modal sustai nable and what trade-offs does an organisation need to make while selecting them? Global Supply chain Impacts and Trade-offs Following the challenges faced by the organisations highlighted earlier in the paper by (Meixell and Mario, 2008).As different Industries operate in different ways and organisations within those industries may also differ in operation and strategy example form the fashion retail industry being: Zara fashions, number one fashion retailer of the world benefited with highly agile supply chain function; highly integrated communication and inventory management system (Euromonitor International , 2011) . Where as in comparison its nearest competitor GAP utilizing a more leaner approach to reduce the uncertainty; both organisations being global brands but with different operational strategies and possessing their own comparative advantage within fashion industry.As both these companies source some of their products from global suppliers but because of difference in o rganisational strategies and core competency rely on different sources as Zara with its most of its operations and headquarters in Spain use more European to aid its agile approach with tradeoffs cost to small batches of inventory levels at each store every fourth week (Euromonitor International , 2011; Paloma Diaz Soloaga and Mercedes Monjo, 2010) making Zara environmentally and economical less sustainable to GAP but Zara make that up with local most manufacturing locally in Spain (Euromonitor International , 2011). As the research question converse the notion of impacts of selecting a global supplier over local supplier it is important to address the reasons for selecting one? As some nations are more comparative than other nations as explained by (Porter, 1990) possessing a unique quality that attracts organisations to select global supply chains rather than local mostly looking for economic sustainability (Yip, 1989; Elkington, 1994; Seuring and Muller, 2008).Organisations decid ing to select a global supplier than a local supplier decreases environmental sustainable supply chain but mostly has an opposite impact on economically. Successful businesses respond to both internal and external changes and amend their strategist in the same manner. In order to ain supplies globally even with increased pressure from customer demands of being ‘green’ and highly imposed governmental regulations in most regions around the globe organisation in turn making diction hard for logistics managers to do certain trade-offs to maintain sustainability on ‘cost, quality and service’, while limiting dangerous emissions to atmosphere (IBM, 2008).Managers devising an operational strategy of an organisation analyse cost and profit in perspective of corporate goals and objectives. The main Trade-offs linked to each part of sustainable supply chain as in acquisition of raw materials sourced by inbound logistics, involves purchasing purchase of ‘greenâ €™ raw material may be costly to normal material leaving a trade-off to buy form low cost supplier or environmentally friendly. Organisation indoor to stay sustainable only trade from suppliers that are certified to International Organization of Standardization standards (ISO) has lead organisations dealing in third world countries with less awareness of ISO regulations to find alternative sources of suppliers (Wu and Dunn, 1995; Anthony D. Ross, 2012).The selection of the vendor will also influence the transpiration mode of selection as for example in third world countries there is lack of infrastructure of trains is not of high speed and precise in timing as in European countries which causes delays, unpredictability and also be unsustainable by possessing extra cost and additional CO2 emissions’; where as some don’t have facility of using road rail combination at all, in both cases trucks to transport goods from remote locations of railway station or deep seapor ts may increase the Carbon foot print more than of that of a normal raw marital bought from a local supplier (Wu and Dunn, 1995).Smart Packaging is another part of logistics in which organisation can do trade-off to stay environmentally sustainable as global supplies use containers to send bulk of goods packed together reducing packaging and material handling costs; another way is being minimizing protection packaging can improve space utilization and reduce handling costs (Sony Global, 2012) at each point of transportation reducing carbon footprint. Lean approach within the supply chain makes it environmentally sustainable but adds usage of ware housing costs with storage of goods in oppositions to widely uses JIT approach (smaller regular shipments) (IBM, 2008) as warehousing occupies excess and and generation of excess packaging waste hat can be reduced by using a local supplier as organisations trade-off of selecting a leaner approach while selecting a global supplier being risk of excess inventories stuck with in the warehouse with an unpredictable customer demand (Wu and Dunn, 1995) as demonstrated by Appendix D demonstrating an example of relationship of all variables of trade-off while comparing operational strategies with shipment consolidation used by IBM (IBM, 2008) to explain effects on environment. Reverse logistics have solved this problem of excess cost of packing and return items by the customers to be sent upstream to supplier using standardized renewable packing (Walley and Whitehead, 1994; Wu and Dunn, 1995; Anthony D. Ross, 2012)but when considering a global supplier it will be addition cost of transportation to the organisation using reverse logistics resulting in excess waste creation an unsustainable option (Talbot, Lefebvre and Lefebvre, 2007; Feo-valero, Menendez and hidalgo, 2011).Information and communications (ICT) can also played an important role in sustainable global supply chain substituting Information with inventory levels (Wu and Dunn, 1995) devising the right routs and knowing the exact times inventory arrivals, conciliation of shipments and optimising waste by minimizing large number of suppliers to just few, maximizing truckload in forward and backward supply chain over all removing uncertainty of supply chain (Mason, Lalwani and Boughton, 2007) the tradeoffs of the initial cost of implementing the ICT systems in organisation to long term sustainable benefits (IBM, 2008; Feo-valero, Menendez and hidalgo, 2011; Sony Global B, 2012).Dependent on the trade-off an organisation is willing to make over cost, service or environment organisations can select a sustainable multimodal method of transport(see Appendix E ) as trade-offs may vary according to selection of a local supplier. Conclusion This paper was aimed to answer question of how selection of global suppliers affects organisation’s sustainable supply chain strategy in light of multi-modal choice while considering the impact and what trade-o ffs does these organisations need do in order to achieve a sustainable supply chain? It is best to conclude this paper at notion of Industries and organisations vary in the need of supply chains dependent on the variants discussed in the paper; taken as a whole, these factors explained by (Carter and Rogers, 008; Meixell and Mario, 2008) play a very important role in selection of mode transport and over all operation strategy and an organisation should assess the trade-offs based on these factors. Whereas overall the decision of using or changing the multi-modal used depends on an organisational willingness to be environmentally sustainable future most of the changes are both cost and eco friendly whereas some require to long protesting one on other. 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Thursday, October 10, 2019

Existentialism and The Plague Essay

Jean-Paul Sartre once said, â€Å"Man is condemned to be free; because once he is thrown into the world, he is responsible for everything he does. † Sartre speaks in accordance with the values of Existentialism, which is defined as a philosophical theory that emphasizes the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining their own development through acts of the will. Existentialists like Sartre rejected the existence of a higher power and the over arching influence of an unnatural conformist society, citing instead the importance of individuality and acts of one’s own free will. According to the doctrine of Existentialism, life is not satisfying yet has meaning. The singular purpose of life is to drive forward into the infinite macrocosm of the universe, searching for one’s own particular meaning of life. Additionally, Existentialists propose that there is no god; there is no big man in the sky creating destinies for the humble earthly beings below. Thus, random instances of elation, violence, and tragedy do not hold a greater significance with a supposed higher power or with the universe itself. Life is an experience specific to man alone. Albert Camus, in relation to this philosophy, delivered to the literary world his existentialist work, The Plague, a novel based on the central theme of the inanity of human suffering and the deep individuality of the human experience. In the pages of this novel and through his characters and themes, Camus paints a picture of a mundane community thrust into an almost illogical, if tragic, state of disease and disaster. His unremarkable town of Oran, that in no way deserved such a virulent visitation of plague, sets a perfect stage for the exemplification of existential teachings. â€Å"The unusual events described in this chronicle occurred in 194- at Oran. Everyone agreed that considering their somewhat extraordinary character, they were out of place there. For its ordinariness is what strikes one first about the town of Oran†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Camus, 3). So begins Albert Camus’ gripping achievement, The Plague. From its very origin, the novel admits itself to be set in a small, dull town, unremarkable in every way. And yet, in the randomness of life, the placid town of Oran is inexplicably bombarded with an attack of plague so malignant it is compared to the plague outbreaks of centuries before, which wiped out entire European villages. The typically overlooked literary element of setting, in this instance that of an ordinary North African coastal village, lies a sense of some of Albert Camus’ greatest genius. In a way that seems almost too subtle, Camus relates one of the basic tenets of Existentialism, that which emphasizes the absence of a higher powers’ influence on human life, to the unfathomable curse on an undeserving town. â€Å"Treeless, glamorous, soulless, the town of Oran ends by seeming restful and, after a while, you go complacently to sleep there. † (Camus, 6). Thus, the town of Oran is classified as a sleepy, typical village, one unaccustomed to the despair and pestilence that is rained upon it during the months of the forthcoming plague. One would assume that in a world ordered by a God, a town that had committed no crime wouldn’t have received such an exemplary form of capital punishment. In such a world, one could argue that the town of Oran should have escaped into happy obscurity. One could also argue the fairness of the fabled destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, towns famously steeped in sin. â€Å"Not so! † would cry the existentialists, as one of the basics ideals of existentialism is the randomness of life. Good and evil in the context of life are simply subjective statements; there is no ultimate reward for those who live as saints, just as there is no ultimate retribution for those who live in sin. In this way, the terror visited on Oran perfectly perpetuates this existential idea. A town so typical and seemingly so ineligible of a tragedy such as the plague is, instead of protected from it, decimated by it. Perhaps Camus’ random devastation of his little town is a result of his involvement in the European anti-Nazi resistance. During this time of unexplained evils: the systematic decimation of the Jews and other undesirables and the horrors inflicted upon occupied France, among other instances of randomized human terrorism, Camus is said to have developed his existentialist perspective. In a world overseen by a benevolent, just maker, where is there room for the murders of innocent millions, or for that matter, the infestation of plague in a sleepy little town? One of the reoccurring themes of Existentialism is the importance of the individual finding meaning in a life that’s ultimate result is death. Another facet of Camus’ The Plague that supports this particular aspect of Existentialism is his host of cast and characters. The townsfolk at large can initially be described as hardworking but self absorbed, if not entirely self centered. Theirs is a community of particular habits and personal needs. Seemingly, the only unifying factor of these citizens seems to be in commerce, or as Camus puts it, â€Å"Our citizens work hard, but solely with the object of getting rich. †(Camus, 4). The masses of Oran find meaning in their businesses, card playing, and cafe going. Though the act of death is described as â€Å"difficult and discomforting† (Camus, 5), the people of Oran seem to accept it in its natural courses. The citizens are entirely resigned to their tedious way of life; in fact hardly a soul stirs at the curious sight of rats dying in masses in the streets. Incredibly, beyond the initial panic of the plague, the citizens seem to resign themselves to that as well. â€Å"There was the same resignation, the same long-sufferance, inexhaustible and without illusions. † (Camus, 184). A great many of the prisoners of Oran had embraced Nihilism, a philosophy in which nothing has any value or any meaning, and pursuit of finding either is futile. Interestingly, the attitude of those in Oran and Nihilism itself run conversely to Camus’ actual beliefs. Influenced by the early death of his father and his childhood poverty, as well as a terrible bout of Tuberculosis, Camus’ actual theories involved a complicated correlation between the lack of hope and despair in a life that exists without any intrinsic meaning. Camus’ philosophy can best be described as a daring experiment in optimism without hope; a life that resists the illusion of a predetermined good outcome without succumbing to despair. In accordance to his personal beliefs, an existential hero designed by Camus resists the despair of a life hurtling toward death and instead rises above death to do good works in the manner of a painfully cautious optimist. One such hero is Dr. Bernard Rieux, narrator and chronicler of the plague. Rieux shows his existential spots early on in his narrative, frequently questioning the conformist ways of Oran society and continually distancing himself from the hypocrisy of their half-formed lives. His choice of profession is a prime example of choosing to rise above death to do good, instead of worshipping â€Å"the god of business† like his peers, he is instead a physician. By their very nature physicians fight an existential battle of healing the sick against an all too present possibility of death. Though separated from his wife, Rieux fights on through the plague, administering serums, seeing to the afflicted, and organizing sanitary squads with the help of other active citizens. Rieux is ever mindful of his responsibilities to others, remarking that â€Å"the essential thing was to save the greatest possible number of persons from dying and being doomed to unending separation. And to do this there was only one resource: to fight the plague. There was nothing admirable about this attitude; it was merely logical. † (Camus, 133). In this passage, Rieux clearly exhibits Camus’ own deeply felt obligations towards society, choosing to fight an inevitable evil rather than resign himself to it. Over the course of his life, Camus’ spoke out against many social injustices, including: the genocides of the Second World War, trade union discrepancies, the death penalty, and injustices within the communist party, which he had formerly been associated with and which cost him many friendships, among them Jean-Paul Sartre. In a case of art imitating life, Rieux’s consistency with himself and with his beliefs caused him much personal hardship and endangered his life. However, his commitment to others made him less despondent and more aware of himself than the rest of the town, giving him a strength that not many shared and allowed him to find his â€Å"true-self†, which is the ultimate goal of Existentialism. In his admirable struggle, Rieux clearly demonstrates the most idealistic goals of Existentialism and in turn represents Camus’ interpretation of the philosophy. Speaking on the attitude of futility that is sometimes associated with Existentialism, Albert Camus said, â€Å"In the depth of winter, I finally learned that there was in me an invincible summer. † In the very heart of his philosophy, Albert Camus accepted that life is merely a vehicle for death, that there is no higher power pulling the strings, and that the meaning of life is attributed to the individual. However, at his core, Camus believed that life was an opportunity to rise above death to accomplish more and do better. The greatest sin was a resignation to death and despair, an indifference to the opportunities afforded to you by free will. In the randomness of life, â€Å"things happen†. Small coastal towns suffer a swift, arbitrary attack of bubonic plague, and Algerian authors die in car crashes when they should have been taking the train. The ultimate question of Existentialism is, â€Å"does life have any meaning? † Ultimately, the key question of Existentialism is answered by that philosophy’s’ very tenets. Life is afforded meaning by the individual, a meaningful life is lived through one’s specific actions to the â€Å"things that happen† in the randomness of one’s existence.