Friday, January 31, 2020

Describe the main theoretical models of child abuse Essay Example for Free

Describe the main theoretical models of child abuse Essay Medical model, sociological model, psychological model, feminist model and contextual model are all theories relating to abuse. Although there are many different types of child abuse and many different reasons why it may occur, most cases have been wilted down to fit into one of the five main theories named above.  Medical mode is when the reason for abused is classed as a disease or an illness. Kempe and Kempe were the inspiration for this theory when they described it as battered child syndrome which was linked to Bowlbys theory on attachment. Bowlby came to the conclusion that children who failed to form this bond with their mother in the first three years of the childs life would have problems in later life bonding with people and trusting people. He also described a child with a lack of bonding to be an affectionless psychopath, which he described to be someone who shows lack of guilt when done something wrong has difficulties showing emotion to things around them or someone with behaviour problems. Another affect of not having an attachment in this critical period as it was also known in Bowlbys eyes was development retardation which meant the child may grow up with learning difficulties or slower intellectual skills. So if the main caregiver failed to have a strong bond when they were young then they may find it difficult to form a bond with the child. It is a vicious cycle that goes round and round. This type of abuse is shown in the case study in some ways. This is because the mother of the children had failed to form a bond with her mother, and there for she is struggling to form a bond with her children. Will these children grow up failing to form a bond or a strong relationship with their children because of this? Bowlby would have described Kerry, the mother as an affectionless psychopath. Sociological model is all about the environment that the child is being brought up in and around. Areas of social deprivation are often linked with abuse which has been proven in some research that has been carried out. Children need to be safe and grow up in healthy environments for them to get a good start in life and grow up healthy. Some people react to how they were treated when they were growing up. In other words if a child is abused or neglected then there is a higher chance that when they grow up they will forward this behaviour on to the children in their care. This is because this is what they are used to and they may think that it is normal was to treat children if they have seen no different. Another reason may be they feel that they have to suffer through it all and so should their children. It is not always this case however, some abused children grown up with the determination to treat the children with the love and kindness that they never received themselves. The case study states that the children are living in a high rise block of flats with faulty wiring, damp, and a lack of hygiene. The children are constantly around alcohol, drugs and known criminals. This is definitely not an appropriate environment for the children to be around and this is why I feel it fits in to this area of abuse.  Psychological model is based around the family and its relationship status. It involves one particular member of the family being scapegoated by the rest of the family and getting the blame for all the problems that arise in the family. This type of abuse can be linked with the case study because the older child Katie gets blamed for a lot of the things that go wrong in the flat especially linked with her brother. Her brother is only a baby and if he cries then Katie gets in to trouble. She is given the responsibility to take care of the baby even though she is only 3 years old herself.  The theory described as the feminist model is about the different sexes and the power and force in which the male figure has. This theory links mainly with sexual abuse.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Lesson Learned in Warfare Essay example -- Warfare

This paper examines lessons learned that are timeless in their relevance for all types of warfare with respect to the lesson materials discussed in the Warfare Studies course. The first lesson learned that this paper examines is the United States’ adaptability in response to changing nature of warfare. The United States has experienced various types of warfare ranging from war of annihilation, war of attrition, or fourth-generation warfare; the United States has no identifiable American way of war. Second, this paper looks at the importance and enduring nature of fourth-generation warfare and counterinsurgency operations. These events are here to stay and will be significant in the future conflicts. The third lesson learned discusses America’s poor planning and preparation for stability, security, transition, and reconstruction operations (SSTR) and demonstrated the need to avoid stovepiped, single agency planning. The apparent lack of planning for SSTR operations severely complicated and extended the United States mission in Iraq. Fourth, America must always strive to be on the cutting edge and maintain technological superiority over our adversaries in order to secure great advantages. However, the United States cannot solely rely on technological savvy military to achieve success. The last lesson learned discusses the growing relevance of information IOP as a powerful tool of war and the importance of it in shaping public opinion. The first lesson learned is the adaptability of United States to evolving nature of warfare. Adaptability is a trademark of the American way of war. The American way of war is usually associated with war of annihilation in which aims for decisive victory or war of attrition in which aims fo... ...ia and Military Operations. Carlisle Barracks, PA: US Army War College, 2008. Murray, Williamson. â€Å"Decisive Battle and the Ghost of Napoleon.† Marine Corps Gazette 84, no. 7 (July 2000): 36-37. Parker, Geoffrey. â€Å"The Western Way of War.† In History of Warfare: The Triumph of the West, 2-9. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Snow, Donald M. and Dennis M. Drew. Making Twenty-first Century Strategy: An Introduction to Modern National Security Processes and Problems. Maxwell AFB, AL.: Air University Press (January 2006). Ulrich, Marybeth P., â€Å"A Primer on Civil-Military Relations for Senior Leaders.† In US Army War College Guide to National Security Issues, Volume II: National Security Policy and Strategy. 3rd ed. Edited by J. Boone Bartholomees, Jr. Carlisle Barracks, PA.: US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute (June 2008): 241-252.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Disney’s Expedition Everest Essay

Walt Disney World wanted to celebrate its 50th anniversary in a big way. So in 2006 Walt Disney Company introduced Expedition Everest in Disney’s Animal Kingdom Park at Lake Buena Vista, Florida. This is more than your average roller coaster. The roller coaster not only has the unexpected twist and turns we all love, but also an incredible attention to detail. This roller coaster really took some impressive management skills. This roller is based off of Mount Everest in Nepal. The ride contains 18 mountains with the tallest one (Everest) peaking at just under 200 feet. The rollers coaster contains nearly a mile of track and also has a robotic 10 foot tall Yeti. Surrounding this roller coaster in 900 bamboo plants, 10 species of trees, and 110 species of shrubs was planted to give the feel of the lowlands in the Himalayas. The Disney Imaginers actually went to the Himalayas in Nepal to study the lands, architecture, colors, ecology, and culture. They actually got more than 2000 handcrafted item for Asia to use as props and ornamentation. This is actually the most expensive roller coaster in the world. Disney’s approach to the management of project such as Expedition Everest is to combine careful planning, including schedule and budgeting preparation, with the imagination and vision for which the company is so well known. Prioritizing the needs for project success took discipline and creativity. Disney seemed to spare no expense when creating their new ride. The budget must have been astronomical. Wanting the new ride open for their 50th anniversary, each step of the project had to be met with strict deadlines taking over 2 years to develop. The approach to the management of the project displays the embodiment of the Disney spirit: a ride that combines Disney’s trademark thrills, and impressive project management.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Using a Collocation Dictionary to Improve Your English

One of the least appreciated tools for learning English is using a collocation dictionary. A collocation can be defined as words that go together. In other words, certain words tend to go with other words. If you think about how you use your own language for a moment, youll quickly recognize that you tend to speak in phrases or groups of words that go together in your mind. We speak in chunks of language. For example: Im tired of waiting for the bus this afternoon. An English speaker doesnt think of ten separate words, rather they think in the phrases Im tired of waiting for the bus and this afternoon. Thats why sometimes you may say something correctly in English, but it just doesnt sound right. For example: Im tired of standing for the bus this afternoon. To someone whos imaging the situation standing for the bus, makes sense, but standing goes together with in line. So, while the sentence makes sense, it isnt really correct. As students improve their English, they tend to learn more phrases and idiomatic language. Its also important to learn collocations. In fact, Id say its the single most under-used tool by most students. A thesaurus is very helpful to find synonyms and antonyms, but a collocations dictionary can help you learn the right phrases in context.   I recommend the Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English, but there are other collocation resources available such as concordance databases. Using a Collocation Dictionary Tips Try these exercises to help you use a collocations dictionary to improve your vocabulary. 1. Choose a Profession Choose a profession you are interested in. Go to the Occupational Outlook site and read the specifics of the profession. Take note of common terms that are used. Next, look up those terms in a collocations dictionary to extend your vocabulary by learning appropriate collocations. Example Aircraft and Avionics Key words from Occupational Outlook: equipment, maintenance, etc. From the collocations dictionary: Equipment Adjectives: the latest, modern, state-of-the-art, high-tech, etc.Types of Equipment: medical equipment, radar equipment, telecom equipment, etc.Verb Equipment: provide equipment, supply equipment, install equipment, etc.  Phrases: the proper equipment, the right equipment From the collocations dictionary: Maintenance Adjectives: annual, daily, regular, long-term, preventive, etc.Types of Maintenance: building maintenance, software maintenance, health maintenance, etc.Verb Maintenance: carry out maintenance, perform maintenance, etc.Maintenance Noun: maintenance personnel, maintenance costs, maintenance schedule, etc.   2. Choose an Important Term Choose an important term that you might use on a daily basis at work, school, or home. Look the word up in the collocations dictionary. Next, imagine a related situation and write a paragraph or more using important collocations to describe it. The paragraph will repeat the keyword too often, but this is an exercise. By repeatedly using your key term, youll create a link in your mind to a wide variety of collocations with your target word.   Example Key Term: Business Situation: Negotiating a contract Example Paragraph Were working on a business deal with an investment company who carries on business with profitable businesses throughout the world. We set up the business two years ago, but weve been very successful due to our business strategy. The CEOs business acumen is outstanding, so were looking forward to conducting business with them. The companys business headquarters are located in Dallas, Texas. Theyve been in business for more than fifty years, so we expect their business experience to be the best in the world. 3. Use the Collocations You Learn Make a list of important collocations. Commit to using at least three of the collocations each day in your conversations. Try it, its more difficult than you might think, but it really helps with memorizing new words.